“Pregnant women’s placental gene expression differed by socioeconomic status.”
“Profiles of lower socioeconomic status women suggested immune activation and tissue immaturity.”

“Cord blood cells of low socioeconomic status newborns also showed indications of immaturity.”
G.E.Miller, et al
Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with transcriptional indications of greater immune activation and slower tissue maturation in placental biopsies and newborn cord blood
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity — Volume 64 — August 2017 — page 276