TheETG Research Notes
TheETG Human Performance library consists of about 60 research journals across 8-10 doctoral disciplines. TheETG Research Notes are more than 3 decades of my notes from research reading from the late 1980’s to the present. Access to information and the ability to apply it is the major mechanism of success in human performance in track & field, in medicine, in health & wellness. As you continue to acquire and apply more information you continue to expand the area of what is possible. .
TheETG research notes, brain & nervous system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesbrainnerve.pdf
TheETG research notes, immune system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesimmunesystem.pdf
TheETG research notes, genetics —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesgenetics.pdf
TheETG research notes, exercise physiology —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesexercisephysiology.pdf
TheETG research notes, cancer —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesnutrition.pdf
TheETG research notes, nutrition —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotescancer.pdf
The quackery of traditional sports medicine…….
“There are many myths in modern medicine. Myths are good stories that are easy to remember, and when they include a mechanical explanation for changes in pain that make intuitive sense, they catch on and live for a long time.”
“One such story is that meniscal tears cause pain, which can be relieved by removal of the damaged meniscal tissue. This myth has been ‘busted’ by randomised, double-blinded trials in middle-aged and older patients demonstrating knee arthroscopy to be no better for degenerative meniscal tears than placebo surgery. But why does knee arthroscopy provide no better pain relief than placebo surgery?”
“The rationale for cutting away damaged meniscal tissue is based on the premise that the injured or damaged parts of the meniscus are the primary cause of the patient’s pain and discomfort.”
“More likely, the knee pain is explained by the presence of early degenerative changes (including degenerative meniscal tissue) or established osteoarthritis in the knee and not because of a direct link between pain and meniscal damage per se. Meniscal tears are common in the symptom-free general middle-aged and older population with and without signs of radiographic knee osteoarthritis.”
“Similarly, in patients with knee trauma, meniscal tears are frequently seen in the uninjured contralateral leg. Such studies debunk the explanation that meniscal tears always cause pain; the simple ‘car mechanic’ analogy—cutting tissue away—does not apply.”
Deconstructing a popular myth: why knee arthroscopy is no better than placebo surgery for degenerative meniscal tears
British Journal Of Sports Medicine – Volume 51 #22 – November 2017
“We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms.”
“20 adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6 to 8 × 5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~ 60 – 80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold).”
“Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively.”
High-intensity interval training resulted in greater increases in total time to exhaustion at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (38% and −4%, respectively).”
“Compared with pre-training, high-intensity interval training increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (−34% vs −43%, respectively) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (−7% vs −3%, respectively) following the total time to exhaustion trial at the same relative intensity.”
“There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after high-intensity interval training by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle.”
T.J.O’Leary, J Collett, K Howells, M.G.Morris
Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports – Volume 27 #12 – page 1648
“The neural mechanisms explaining strength increase following mental training by motor imagery are not clearly understood. While gains are mostly attributed to cortical reorganization, the sub-cortical adaptations have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of motor imagery training on muscle force capacity and the related spinal and supraspinal mechanisms.”
“18 young healthy participants (mean age: 22.5 ± 2.6) took part in the experiment. They were distributed into two groups: a control group (n = 9) and an motor imagery training group (n = 9).”
“The motor imagery group performed seven consecutive sessions (one per day) of imagined maximal isometric plantar flexion (4 blocks of 25 trials per session). The control group did not engage in any physical or mental training.”
“After one week, only the motor imagery training group increased both plantar flexion maximal plantar flexion torque and rate of torque development.”
“The increased cortical descending neural drive and the excitability of spinal networks at rest could explain the greater rate of torque development and maximal plantar flexion torque after one week of motor imagery training.”
S.Grospretre, T.Jacquet, F Lebon, C.Papazanthis. A.Martin
Neural mechanisms of strength increase after one-week motor imagery training
European Journal Of Sport Sciences – Volume 18 #2 – 2018 – page 209
Mind-body medicine is founded on the basic principle that the brain controls or influences the function of all cells in the body by direct connection to them via the nervous system, or via chemical interaction via release of hormones or substances called neuro-peptides. Hence the importance of and awareness of the existence of mind-body medicine. And the importance of utilizing mind-body medicine and integrating into the practice of medicine in the United States.
TheETG mind-body medicine —–
TheETG human psychology —–
TheETG applied sport sciences
One of the several arguments in favor of long rather than short rest periods in interval workouts regardless of whether the workout is comprised of sprints or distance reps……..
“Repeated sprint training consists of a series of brief maximal sprints, 3–7 seconds in duration, separated by short rest periods of less than 60 seconds. However, little is known about the influence of different rest period lengths between sprints on performance adaptation.”
“We determined the influence of inserting long rest periods during repeated sprint training on performance adaptation in competitive athletes.”
“21 well-trained athletes were separated into either the short rest period group (SHORT; n = 10) or the long rest period group (LONG; n = 11).”
“The training protocol for both groups consisted of two sets of 12 × 6-seconds maximal cycle sprints with 24 seconds of rest between sprints. However, in the LONG group, an active rest period of 7 minutes was inserted every three sprints to attenuate the power output decrement during the latter half of the sprints.”
“The training was performed 3 days per week for 3 weeks.”
“Maximal power output during the repeated sprint test was significantly increased only in the LONG group.”
“These results suggest that repeated sprint training with insertion of longer rest periods is an efficient strategy for improving maximal power output compared with the same training separated by short rest periods alone.”
A.Ikutomo, N.Kasai, K Goto
Impact of inserted long rest periods during repeated sprint exercise on performance adaptation
European Journal Of Sport Sciences – Volume 18 #1 – 2018 – page 47
“…..coping strategies used by elite athletes in response to emotional abuse experienced within the coach–athlete relationship. The athletes in this study adopted emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies to manage their feelings in the moment that emotional abuse occurred.”
“Over time, athletes accessed support networks and engaged in sense making to rationalize their experiences. The potential of coping-level intervention to develop individual resources and to break the cycle of emotional abuse in sport is highlighted.”
“We suggest that as primary agents of ensuring athlete’s protection, sport psychologists need appropriate safeguarding training.”
E.Kavanagh, L Brown, I Jones
Elite Athletes’ Experience of Coping With Emotional Abuse in the Coach–Athlete Relationship
Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology – Volume 29 #4 – 2017 – page 402
TheETG human psychology —–
If you grew up in America and want to move into the realm of “eating well”, or eating better, or eating “healthy”, you are at some point going to have to confront and overcome the cultural dogma you were indoctrinated into. The purpose here being to provide you with a clean slate from which to get started learning how to “eat well”.
Cultural dogma #1 = Breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The cultural dogma of “3 square meals a day”, each with a designated time frame. Ya gotta lose this.
Cultural dogma #2 = Each meal has to be comprised of a balanced consumption of food items from a set of identified food groups. Ya gotta let this go too.
Cultural dogma #3 = Food item X is a “breakfast” food, not to be consumed outside the designated time frame. Food item Z is a dinner food, not to be consumed outside the designated time frame.
Cultural dogma #4 = all snack foods, desert foods, and psuedo-meal foods are the same…..They’re all “junk foods”.
Reality…..food items such as organic thin crust “supreme” pizzas are among –the– most nutrient dense food items known to man.
Reality…..food items such as organic apple pie, organic cheese cake contain extraordinarily high levels of cell–necessary poly and mono unsaturated fatty acids, essential for brain function, immune cell function, and for production and repair of cell membranes throughout the human body.
In the quest to “eat well” its necessary to put data ahead of dogma.
Avoiding so-called “junk foods” that are packed with nutrients won’t help you eat well. Avoiding some foods in the evening because they’re “breakfast foods” won’t help you eat well. Avoiding some foods in the morning because they’re “dinner foods” won’t help you eat well.
To “eat well” you’re gonna have to remove the artificial, culturally indoctrinated time of day designations from food items.
Not all fats are the same.
Eating “a low fat diet” is more likely to prevent you from consuming required levels of essential fats than it is to help you with weight loss or maintaining weight loss…..and more likely to contribute to long term health problems that will begin showing up in no uncertain terms in your 50’s and 60’s.
The word “calorie” has no place in human nutrition.
Your cells don’t care about how many calories you consume.
They don’t care about what percentage of the food you consume is comprised of fat, protein, or carbohydrate.
They care about grams, milligrams, micro-grams, nano-grams of nutrients.
And they don’t do averages…..X calories per day. They do absolutes.
The cells of your body need what they need when they need it.
Today’s needs are not tomorrow’s or last week’s.
Learn to think and reason in these terms.
Once you’ve deleted the dogma, creating a standardized nutrient dense written food plan that repeats every few days may prove to be the easiest approach to truly getting started “eating well”, eating better, eating “healthy”.
[Pitsiladis] “Many of these compounds in a highly-trained individual do absolutely nothing from the point of view of enhancing performance…..”
“…Athletes think if it’s on a list, it works.”
[Roger Pielke Jr, director of the Sports Governance Centre at the University of Colorado-Boulder, CO, USA]…..“WADA’s expansion of banned substances has created a conflict of interest because “a bigger list implies a need for more tests and more testing, which both imply an expansion of the anti-doping industry…..”
Overhaul of global anti-doping system needed
Lancet — Volume 387 #10034 — May 28, 2016 — page 2188
ETG info: drugs & drug testing, sham & scam —–
“Oral contraceptive use reduces peak aerobic capacity…..”
“….oral contraceptive use dampened V˙O2peak and Q˙peak adaptation.“
“Therefore, oral contraceptive use should be verified, controlled for, and considered when interpreting physiological adaptations to exercise training in women.”
M.A.Schaumberg, et al
Oral Contraceptive Use Dampens Physiological Adaptations to Sprint Interval Training
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 49 #4 — April 2017 — page 717