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  TheETG Classroom

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TheETG Research Notes

TheETG Human Performance library consists of about 60 research journals across 8-10 doctoral disciplines. TheETG Research Notes are more than 3 decades of my notes from research reading from the late 1980’s to the present. Access to information and the ability to apply it is the major mechanism of success in human performance in track & field, in medicine, in health & wellness. As you continue to acquire and apply more information you continue to expand the area of what is possible. .

TheETG research notes, brain & nervous system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesbrainnerve.pdf

TheETG research notes, immune system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesimmunesystem.pdf

TheETG research notes, genetics —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesgenetics.pdf

TheETG research notes, exercise physiology —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesexercisephysiology.pdf

TheETG research notes, cancer —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesnutrition.pdf

TheETG research notes, nutrition —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotescancer.pdf

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Cold and flu…..To “catch a cold” or flu a virus must enter your body, typically by -you- putting it near your eyes, nose, or mouth. Someone who has a cold is out and about in public or in your household, sneezes, coughs, or wipes their nose, cold virus gets out of their body onto their hands. They shake hands with you, touch stuff that’s probably touched by 5 to 500 other folks during the time the virus can survive there…..door knobs and handles, stairway and escalator handrails, computer mouse, waterfountain button, ATM buttons, etc, etc. The virus now on your hands, you rub your eyes-nose-mouth without -first- having wiped them [and the virus] off on your clothes and/or without washing your hands.
The virus finds its way into your body, comes under attack by your immune system, and makes a major effort to replicate and proliferate. If it does so successfully, you will…..“catch a cold”, or “get the flu”.
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The adhesion molecules that viruses and bacteria use to cling to your hands can be overcome by wiping your hands on your clothes.
Thus, the most effective way to prevent yourself from putting the cold and flu into your body…….
—– Program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth, door handles, stair-rails, etc, etc, etc. If you have the cold or flu, you can prevent transmission by sneezing, coughing into your elbow rather your hand. And you can wipe your hands on your clothes prior to touching stuff or people when out and about in public. 5000IU of vitamin D3 per day may be on par with “get a flu shot” in flu prevention.
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Avoid group think….We’ve dumbed down this subject into “get a flu shot and wash your hands”.
There isn’t a sink and soap dispenser next to everything you touch and every handshake you engage in. Some dude in the bathroom washes his hands like he’s scrubbing for surgery. On his way out he sneezes into his hand prior to grabbing the door handle to leave. The 10 guys after him grab that handle.
Avoid group think….The Centers For Disease Control [CDC] study, average effectiveness of a flu shot the last decade is only 45% [2008 – 2018], and less than 50% of health care workers at places that don’t offer or require flu shots, get a flu shot. Some work with elderly, toddlers, and/or other low–immune functioning folks.
Avoid group think….That anti-bacteria liquid-gel dispenser in the hallway, yet another thing that pumps and other stuff along the membrane of a virus or bacteria will adjust to over time, further contributing to the “super bug” phenomena. Anti-bacteria cleaning surfaces at home….try a spray bottle, water, baking soda, and salt, with no super-bug producing after-effect.
If preventing death is the objective we should be willing to reach beyond “get a flu shot and wash your hands”.

“To our knowledge, no rigorously designed clinical trials have evaluated the relation between vitamin D and physician-diagnosed seasonal influenza.”
“We investigated the effect of vitamin D supplements on the incidence of seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren.”

“From December 2008 through March 2009, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing vitamin D(3) supplements [1200 IU per day] with placebo in schoolchildren. The primary outcome was the incidence of influenza A, diagnosed with influenza antigen testing with a nasopharyngeal swab specimen.”

“Influenza A occurred in 18 of 167 [10.8%] children in the vitamin D(3) group compared with 31 of 167 [18.6%] children in the placebo group. The reduction in influenza A was more prominent in children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements and who started nursery school after age 3.”

“In children with a previous diagnosis of asthma, asthma attacks as a secondary outcome occurred in 2 children receiving vitamin D(3) compared with 12 children receiving placebo…”

“This study suggests that vitamin D(3) supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren.”

M.Urashima, et al
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren.
American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition….Volume 91 #5….May 2010….page 1255 – 1260

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Program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth, door handles, stair-rails, etc, etc, etc.
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TheETG Immune System
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGimmuneboost.pdf

 

 

I train on a track at a middle school. Their soccer team is usually having practice.
In the photo the guy in grey tshirt is the coach. During my warmup and workout I listen to him coach his athletes and I listen to the athletes talking to each other.
Coaches across all sports from toddlers to high schoolers and the parents of their athletes should be forced to sit in a room, blindfolded, and listen to 30 – 90 minutes of video tape of this guy’s practice session from any given day of the week.
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He’s done the most important part of coaching which is to create an organizational culture similar in concept to a corporate culture at a large business.
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He feeds that culture by being extremely informational, teaching the athletes sport related knowledge they want to know. Injects individual attention and praise while working with the group as a whole. All of which drives the athletes to embrace the culture….also known as behavioral guardrails and expectations.
The culture directs behavior. In turn, the athletes pursue a reasonable level of self-discipline. That self-discipline further contributes to the organizational culture. And it creates the reality of the athletes themselves, via peer pressure, policing and enforcing a reasonable level of disciplinary activity among themselves….something you can hear for yourself during their practice sessions.
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What you won’t hear is a raised voice from the coach or dis-unity among the athletes.
Its a middle school, not an NFL or NBA team, yet this dude gets it!
Across a couple decades when I trained downtown at Austin high school, each Fall I listened to the band director. He gets it too!
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Organizational culture is priceless.
Unless of course the coach has failed in this area.
The sound of failure is screaming, yelling, barking orders, zero trust in the athletes to the extent that the coach has to oversee every stretch, every drill, every workout because the athletes have no self-discipline. That’s the culture.
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Research journals in this area that I’ve followed since 1991……
Journal Of Organizational Behavior
Journal Of Sport Behavior
Journal Of Sport & Social Issues
The Sport Psychologist
Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology
Journal Of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Psychology Of Sport & Exercise

 

“The increased focus on evidence-based practice in sports has allowed exercise physiologists and researchers to play a more important role for athlete development and performance. This development has strengthened International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance’s role as we place a substantial focus on the practical applications of our research.”
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“To quote Editor Emeritus Carl Foster in a previous editorial, “We may not have improved the ability of coaches to guide their athletes as much as we would like to think.” In the future, our research should have a more direct impact on the behavior and practices of athletes and coaches.”
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“…..sport communities themselves should also include support staff with research competence and responsibility for implementing scientific knowledge into the organization.”
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“Although the improved physiological understanding of sport performance published in future editions of International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance will be an important contributor, our impact on sports will only succeed if new knowledge leads to improved coaching and positive changes in athletes’ behavior and practices.”
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“If we succeed with this strategy, we will verify the practical impact of applied research in sport and, at the same time, positively influence our future (scientific) impact factor. So, let’s close the gap between research and practice to discover new land together.”
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O.Sandbakk
Let’s Close the Gap Between Research and Practice to Discover New Land Together!
International Journal Of Sports Physiology and Performance — Volume 13 #8 — September 2018 — page 961

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/full/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0550

“Approach speed is a major determinant of pole-vault performance. Athletic jump events such as long jump, triple jump, and pole vault can utilize an elevated track for the runway. Feedback from athletes indicates a benefit of using an elevated track on their results.”

“To investigate the potential advantage of using an elevated track during elite pole-vault competitions on run-up speed parameters.”

“Performance and run-up criteria (speed, stride rate, contact, and aerial time) were measured from 20 high-level male pole-vaulters during official competitions on either a regular or an elevated track.”

“Statistical analyses indicated that for the elevated track, there was a small improvement in final speed (1.1%), stride rate (1.1%), and takeoff distance (3.1%) and a small reduction in aerial time (−1.9%).”

“….speed improvement was largely correlated with stride-rate improvement and contact-time reduction for slower athletes. Elevated tracks can increase final approach speed in pole vault and positively influence performance.”

J.Cassirame, H.Sanchez, J.B.Morin
The Elevated Track in Pole Vault: An Advantage During Run-Up?
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance — Volume 13 #6 — July 2-18 — page 717

Not a lotta stuff related to running or coaching puts me in a rage.
But stuff like this certainly gets it done.
Cut first and ask questions later.
Diagnosis not questioned. Critical thinking, clinical reasoning at zero.
The standard, oh, this tissue is causing your problem so we’ll remove that tissue that you and billions of other folks were born with and throw it in the trash, you won’t need it. Followed by, uh oh, you’re still in pain after we removed the tissue we said was causing your pain….oops, sorry, maybe that wasn’t the cause of your pain.
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Athlete leaves the sport.
Coach and doctors no where to be seen.
Rinse and repeat for hundreds of other runners decade after decade. Learning curve, zero.
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If you run your athletes into the ground, that’s on you.
If you cut on your patients without keeping up with research or questioning your potentially faulty assumptions, that’s on you.
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This is the fate of Kate Murphy outta Lake Braddock high school in northern Virginia. One of the best distance runners in the incredible 45 year history of the nationally dominant high school track scene in northern Virginia.
Done. Only in her 2nd year outta high school.
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As a high school coach you do what you can to develop your athletes and give them a good shot at future success. When they come home on college semester break or call you saying they can’t run, that’s a serious problem.
That’s not….”a part of running”, its an f’ing problem!

https://www.flotrack.org/articles/6257339-kate-murphy-medically-retires-from-running-at-oregon?utm_campaign=breakingnews&utm_medium=socialmedia&utm_source=facebook&utm_content=article&utm_term=katemurphy&rtid=&coverage_id=&fbclid=IwAR28uLZbXZfRqP-TRRXtnaWwCCzP2aTYS4QrUdq0x7ky7ynfBIg8xoMGphM

TheETG applied sport sciences…..
“The aim of this study was to describe the pacing distribution during 6 editions of the world cross-country championships.”
“Data from the 768 male runners participating from 2007 to 2013 were considered for this study.”
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“A significant general decrease in speed by lap was also found.”
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“…..a much more stable pacing pattern should be considered to maximize final position.”
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Top-10 finishers in the world cross-country championships tend to display a more even pace than the rest of the finishers, whose general behavior shows a positive (fast-to-slow) pattern.”
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J.Esteve-Lanao, et al
Running World Cross-Country Championships: A Unique Model for Pacing
International Journal Of Sport Physiology & Performance….Volume 9 #6…..November 2014….page 1000 – 1005

“Post-lunch sleepiness belongs to biological rhythms. Athletes take a nap to counteract afternoon circadian nadir, in prevision of disturbed sleep. This study examined the effects of brief post-lunch nap on vigilance in young and healthy athletes.”

“The P300 components, physiological and cognitive performances were assessed either after nap or rest, following a night of normal sleep or simulated jet lag condition (5-h advance-Jet Lag Condition).”
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“Napping positively impacts on cognitive processing, especially when subjects are on normal sleep schedules. A nap should be planned for athletes whose performance requires speedy and accurate decisions.”
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E.P.H.Bourdin
Effects of a 20-Min Nap Post Normal and Jet Lag Conditions on P300 Components in Athletes
International Journal Of Sports Medicine — Volume 39 #7 — July 2018 — page 508

“So far, the relationship between wind and athletics performance has been studied mainly for 100 m sprint, based on simulation of biomechanical models, requiring several assumptions. In this study, this relationship is quantified empirically for all five horizontal jump and sprint events where wind is measured, with freely available competition results.”
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“After systematic scraping several elite and sub-elite results sites, the obtained results (n = 150,169) were filtered and matched to athletes.”
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“2.0 meters per second tail wind provides an average advantage of 0.125, 0.140 and 0.146−seconds for the 100, 200 and 100/110 m hurdles, respectively, and an advantage of 0.058 and 0.102 meters for long jump and triple jump, respectively.”
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“Performance level had a significant effect on the wind influence only for 100 m. Amateur athletes (∼13 seconds for 100m) benefit 69% more from a 2.0 meters per second tail wind than elite athletes (∼10 seconds for 100m).”
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“Practical formulas are presented for each event. These can easily be used correct results for wind speed, allowing better talent scouting and championship selection. This study demonstrates the efficacy of answering scientific questions empirically, through freely available data.”
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M.Moinat, et al
Data-driven quantification of the effect of wind on athletics performance
European Journal Of Sport Sciences — Volume 18 #9 — 2018 — page 1185

“…..the 2016 meldonium debacle in which WADA had to walk back its standards twice because it put the substance on its prohibited list without bothering to study the variations in how people metabolize the medication.”

“So much time, effort and money were invested after the fact when there is little to no proof meldonium aids performance.”
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Bonnie D. Ford, ESPN Senior Writer
Chris Froome freed to race, but it’s time to take deep breath and reassess anti-doping
ESPN July 4, 2018
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Put data ahead of dogma, as to follow the data -not- the crowd.
ETG info: drugs & drug testing, sham & scam —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGstopdrug.pdf

The main purpose of a workout is to induce production of specific proteins cells need in order for the body to function at a higher level, thus empowering improved performance. I drive added cell protein production beyond what the workout alone has induced by consuming a combo drink of whey protein + carbo that drives insulin level. Insulin is perhaps the most powerful anabolic hormone in the human body. The increase along side providing protein stimulates both, further gene transcription and translation beyond what the workout itself achieves.
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To some degree the beverage is an immune system stimulator.
Immune system cells not only clean up debri in brain, nerve, and muscle tissue, but also produce growth factor substances that aid cell and tissue building for improvement in functioning. Within 5 – 10 minutes post-workout while still at the track I begin consumption of the beverage. It also contains micronutrients.
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It also provides the critical range of carbos 20 – 40 grams allowing one to strike while your blood flow is still relatively high and thus a greater rate of delivery of carbos to brain, nervous system, immune system, and muscle during the first 20 – 30 minutes. That results in greater carbo available for fuel for post-workout cell function, greater carbo available for fuel for local immune system cells doing their required jobs that enhance workout recovery and forward movement of cellular fitness level, and greater carbo available for storage as glycogen to be used for fuel in the next race or the next workout.
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Post-workout beverage provides…..whey protein and micronutrients.
whey protein……
— includes cysteine…….which increases glutathione
— gluthatione increased more with whey protein
— better increase in insulin compared to caseinate
— better muscle protein synthesis in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of essential amino acids in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of leucine in whey compared to caseinate
— The two main whey proteins……a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin
— enhances neutrophil function, increases lymphocytes
– alpha-lactalbumin…..contains tripeptide [Glycine-Leucine-Phenylalanine]
— enhances macrophage function
– alpha-lactalbumin…..high tryptophan content has neurological impact
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“These data indicate that liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion ingestion enhances muscle anabolism following resistance training to a greater extent than either CHO or EAA consumed independently. The synergistic effect of liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion maximises the anabolic response……”
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S.P. Bird, K.M. Tarpenning, F.E. Marino
Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men
European Journal of Applied Physiology…..Volume 97 #2……May 2006….page 225 – 238

“This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. 20 recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group.”
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“Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, whereas H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks.”
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“Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10-m intervals, and running time ( t ), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period.
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“After 8 weeks of training program, running time was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group.”
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“Running velocity also increased for totally 100 m of running distance by 4.13 and 2.35% in Com, and H groups, respectively.”
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“At the speed maintenance phase, although running time and maximal running velocity found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, running time was found to be decreased, and maximal running velocity was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups.”
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“Step length was increased at 60–70 m, and step frequency was decreased at 70–80 m in H group. Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in step frequency at 80–90 m in Com group.”
“In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and running velocity, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving running velocity, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in step length during the speed maintaining phase.”
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E.Cetin, et al
Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100-m Sprint Running
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research — Volume 32 #5 — May 2018 — page 1263

Applied exercise sciences……
“….most High-intensity interval training studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient “low-volume” High-intensity interval training is based mainly on demanding “all-out” protocols.”
“Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30min time-effort/week), non-all-out High-intensity interval training protocols, performed 2 × per week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre.”

34 sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-minutes High-intensity interval training (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-minute High-intensity interval training (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85–95% maximal heart rate, or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (76 minutes per week) at 65–75% HRmax.”

“2 × 4 minutes High-intensity interval training and 5 × 1 minute High-intensity interval training exhibited lower dropout rates than moderate-intensity continuous training.”

“…..the High-intensity interval training protocols required 60% less time commitment.”

“Only 5 × 1 minute High-intensity interval training significantly improved waist circumference and subjective work ability.”

“The present study indicates that low-volume High-intensity interval training can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) High-intensity interval training that requires as little as 30 minutes per week……may induce significant improvements in VO2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.”
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D.Reljic, et al
Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 118 #6 — June 2018 — page 1153

 

Another example of the quackery of traditional sports medicine…….
“…compare the long-term treatment outcomes of operative versus nonoperative treatment of ACL ruptures in high-level athletes.”
“50 patients with an ACL rupture were eligible for participation, and they were treated either nonoperatively (n = 25) in 1992, consisting of structured rehabilitation and lifestyle adjustments, or operatively (n = 25) between 1994 and 1996 with an arthroscopic transtibial bone–patellar tendon–bone technique.”

“The patients in the nonoperative group were drawn from those who responded well to 3 months of nonoperative treatment, whereas the patients in the operative group were drawn from those who had persistent instability after 3 months of nonoperative treatment.”
“Both groups…..assessed at 10- and 20-year follow-up regarding radiological knee osteoarthritis, functional outcomes, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, meniscal status, and knee stability.”

“All 50 patients (100%) were included in the current study for follow-up. After 20 years, we found knee osteoarthritis in 80% of the operative group compared with 68% of the nonoperative group.”

“There was no difference between groups regarding functional outcomes and meniscectomy performed.”

“…..we found that after 20-year follow-up, there was no difference in knee osteoarthritis between operative versus nonoperative treatment…..”

“Although knee stability was better in the operative group, it did not result in better subjective and objective functional outcomes.”

D.T.Van Yperen, et al
Twenty-Year Follow-up Study Comparing Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in High-Level Athletes
American Journal Of Sports Medicine — Volume 46 #5 — April 2018 — page 1129

Heart disease…..mega-runner same as couch potato.
The all-year-around marathon training, marathon races, ultra-marathons, and multiple ironman races each year.
The bell curve……Your cells, your immune system, your organs don’t do well with –way– too little or –way– too much exercise.
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“We measured extracoronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and with coronary atherosclerosis in male marathon runners.”
“We studied 100 male presumably healthy runners, aged 50 – 75 years who completed at least five marathons during the preceding 3 years.”
“Ten runners were free from any plaque in the carotid or peripheral arteries.”
“The prevalence of carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis in marathon runners is high and is related to cardiovascular risk factors and the coronary atherosclerotic burden.”
“These data support an increased awareness of atherosclerosis prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors in marathon runners.”
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K.Kroger, et al
Carotid and Peripheral Atherosclerosis in Male Marathon Runners.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…..Volume 43 #7…..July 2011……page 1142 – 1147
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“The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of carotid ultrasound to predict coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic male marathon runners. A total of 49 male marathon runners older than 45 years (mean age 53 years, range 45‐74years) received carotid ultrasound and cardiac CT angiography including calcium scoring.”
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“….48 marathon runners, 17 had carotid atherosclerosis and 22 coronary atherosclerosis.”
“Atherosclerosis in either exam was diagnosed in 27/48 (56.3%) marathon runners.”
“Coronary and/or carotid atherosclerosis can be detected in more than 50% of male marathon runners aged older than 45 years.”
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C.Burgstahler, et al
Coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic male marathon runners
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science in Sports — Volume 28 #4 — April 2018 — page 1397
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“…..short- and long-term [up to 1 month] effects of an ultraendurance running event…..after a single-stage 233-km (143 miles) running event.”
“…..nine men (age = 46.1 +/- 5.3 years…)”
“….blood mononuclear cells were assayed for nonspecific DNA damage and damage to DNA caused specifically by oxidative stress.”
“Ultraendurance exercise causes oxidative stress, which persists for one calendar month depending on the specific biomarker examined. These results suggest that ultraendurance events are associated with a prolonged period of reduced protection against oxidative stress.”
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J.E. Turner, et al
Prolonged Depletion of Antioxidant Capacity after Ultraendurance Exercise
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…….Volume 43 #9……September 2011…..page 1770 – 1776

“In controlled exercise settings the placebo response…..Wright et al. (2009) found that runners’ performance increased by 6.5%, and that slower runners showed a stronger placebo effect after ingesting purported nutritional ergogenic aids.”

“…..the placebo effect of caffeine on resistance exercise to failure was studied with 12 men (Duncan, Lyons, & Hankey, 2009). Performance was better when participants expected that they have ingested caffeine.”

“Another study of 12 men, drinking either plain water (control), or a labeled performance enhancer drink (placebo), or fatigue inducing (nocebo) drink, showed a modest placebo effect in peak minute power incremental arm crank exercise (Bottoms, Buscombe, & Nicholettos, 2014).”

A.Szabo, et al
Laboratory Investigation of Specific and Placebo Effects of a Magnetic Bracelet on a Short Bout of Aerobic Exercise
Journal Of Sport Behavior – December 2017

TheETG applied sport sciences……Altitude training.
We now have multiple research review articles [not just individual studies] on traditional and “live high train low.
As I’ve said for over a decade, its -not- the altitude, the air, or red blood cells, its the hills that come with being in the mountains.
You just need the hills not the altitude, not the pressure on oxygen, and not EPO use.
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“The novel hypothesis that “Live High-Train Low” does not improve sport-specific exercise performance is discussed.
“….many studies demonstrate improved performance after Live High-Train Low but, unfortunately, control groups are often lacking…….Importantly, when control groups, blinding procedures, and strict scientific evaluation criteria are applied, Live High-Train Low has no detectable effect on performance.”
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J.Bejder, J.Nordsborg, N.Baastrup
Specificity of “Live High-Train Low” Altitude Training on Exercise Performance
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews – Volume 46 #2 – April 2018 – page 129
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“The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability.”
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“In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia “Live High-Train Low” and normoxia (placebo) for 8hours/day.
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“Live High-Train Low” exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500m, 2 weeks at 3000m, and 2 weeks at 3500m.”
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“Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions, placebo….Likewise, mean power output was similar between treatments as well as before and after each intervention for time trial, placebo, and 3-min all-out.”
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“Furthermore, peak- and mean power output during repeated sprint exercise was similar between groups at all time points. In conclusion, 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents simulating altitudes of 2500–3500m conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.”

J.Bejder, et al
Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric “Live High-Train Low”: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 117 #5 — May 2017 — page 979
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“…..based off of a study using elite cyclists to assess Live High Train Low at a training center in the Jura mountains of France.”
“Unlike the vast majority of researchers who had investigated Live High Train Low , this team used a double-blind design, which is the gold standard for scientific research. It had been difficult to use a double-blind design in studies using natural altitude: athletes knew whether they were living in the mountains or at sea level, and so did researchers.”

“Only the lead researcher knew which athletes were assigned where; even the on-the-ground staff did not know, eliminating bias at another level.”

“The cyclists lived in the treatments for four weeks, during which time they were told to train normally, outside, at the natural 1,135 meters of elevation.”

“…..athletes living the Live High Train Low lifestyle did not increase their red blood cell mass or the erythropoietin levels….and that group did not see greater improvement in the tests and time trials…..than their control group counterparts.”
[Dr. Christoph Siebenmann, Carsten Lundby of the University of Zurich……Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg of the University of Copenhagen]
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“Scientifically speaking, altitude training has no effect,”
“Neither the ability to cycle far or the ability to sprint is improved on average.”
[Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg, University of Copenhagen]
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“In spite of accumulating evidence that altitude training affords no advantage over sea level training, many coaches and athletes believe that it can enhance sea level performance for any athlete, whether endurance or power is the focus in their particular sport.”
L.A. Wolski, et al
Altitude Training For Improvements In Sea Level Performance
Sports Medicine…..Volume 22 #4….October 1996…page 251
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“It has been shown that, in elite athletes, hematocrit does not correlate with performance.”
[A.Legaz, J.J. Gonzales, et al……Hematocrit > 50%: An Accurate Index For Prevention and Control Of Doping In Athletes?…..University Of Zaragoza…..Spanish Olympic Committee

“The drug erythropoietin, often called EPO……a new systemic review of existing research reveals that there is no scientific evidence that it does enhance performance, but there is evidence that using it in sport could place a user’s health and life at risk.”
EPO [erythropoietin] doping in elite cycling: No evidence of benefit, but risk of harm
Science Daily……December 5, 2012
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“….there is no scientific basis from which to conclude that rHuEPO has performance-enhancing properties in elite cyclists.”
“The use of rHuEPO in cycling is rife but scientifically unsupported by evidence, and its use in sports is medical malpractice.”
J.A.Heuberger, et al
Erythropoietin doping in cycling: lack of evidence for efficacy and a negative risk-benefit.
British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology……Volume 75 #6….June 2013…page 1406
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“Evidently, the inconclusive research findings as well as our own observations oppose popular beliefs as well as opinions of the anti-doping agencies about the ergogenic effects of Hb doping aids for cyclists. This disparity made us insecure. What if aforementioned arguments and observations are valid and those of the antidoping authorities are not?”
“We summarized the main statistical findings of our study….The analyses offered no support for the outlier hypothesis, since none of the victors in the 1990 – 2008 periods demonstrated abnormal peaks in their time performances compared to the performances of their counterparts in foregoing periods.”
H.Lodewijkx, B.Brouwer
Epo Epidemic in Professional Cycling
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport……Volume 82 #4……2011….page 740 – 754
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“I believe there is a clear need for high-quality research to investigate the effects of supposedly enhancing drugs in sport. If, as is expected, many substances in current use are found to be ineffective it will help keep our athletes safe and improve confidence in sporting results….”
[Adam Cohen, Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands]
.
“……human erythropoietin administration….”
“……paradoxically, its effects are opposite of those of endurance training, namely a change in red cell mass without an increase in the total blood volume. Thus use of…..erythropoietin as a performance enhancing agent is dangerous, particularly in the less fit athlete, and probably of little benefit in the highly conditioned one.”
J.L.Spivak
Erythropoietin use and abuse: When physiology and pharmacology collide
Advances In Experiemental Medicine & Biology….Volume 502…..2001….page 207 – 224

“For decades scientists accepted an “Andean man” model for acclimatization: The body at altitude will grow a higher concentration of oxygen-absorbing red blood cells to mop up scarcer oxygen from rarified air.”

“Earlier this month, however, Beall and five colleagues reported on another distinctive people — a community of Ethiopians who live at 11,650 feet, and whose blood, by several common measures, is exactly the same as if they lived at sea level.”

“……published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Beall’s team reported on 300 people living in the Semien Mountains about 300 miles north of Addis Ababa. Testing showed they had neither elevated red-cell concentrations nor low levels of oxygen saturation in their blood — two key indicators of the Andean model.”

“The Himalayan research triggered a debate over a possible evolutionary explanation for high altitude adaptation. The Andeans, whose lowland ancestors migrated from Asia perhaps 16,000 years ago, adjust to altitude essentially the same way as any lowlander would today…….Tibetans or their ancestors, however, have been in Asia for 1 million years or more — time enough, some scholars theorize, to evolve a different approach. In Ethiopia, the two tracks may converge. Human ancestors first arose there and in Kenya as much as 4 million years ago. If Darwinian adaptation has played a role, there may be no likelier places.”

“In the Semien mountains, Beall’s team tested people of all ages, mostly herders with no particular athletic bent. Unlike the Andeans, their hemoglobin concentrations were the same as those of lowlanders. But unlike the Tibetans, they also had high, sea-level oxygen saturation levels.”
.
by Guy Gugliotta
High-Altitude Breathing May Be In One’s Blood
Washington Post, Monday December 23, 2002

“The purpose of this study was to compare the gluteus maximus and hamstring group electromyographic (EMG) activation levels among selected weight-bearing resistance exercises. Eighteen young adult females with previous resistance training experience completed the study.”
.
“Strength was assessed on the bilateral squat (3 repetition maximum), modified single-leg squat (3 repetition maximum), and stiff-leg deadlift (8 repetition maximum) to determine an 8 repetition maximum load for all lifts.”
.
“During EMG data collection, 3 repetitions were completed using an 8RM load on all 3 exercises.”
.
Gluteus maximus EMG was significantly greater than hamstring group EMG on the bilateral squat (40.3 vs. 24.4%), modified single-leg squat (65.6 vs. 40.1 %), and stiff-leg deadlift (40.5 vs. 29.9 %).”
.
“The modified single-leg squat gluteus maximus EMG was also significantly greater than the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat, whereas no difference was found between the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat. Comparing the activation of the 2 muscle groups in all exercises, the gluteus maximus seems to be the primary muscle recruited whereas the modified single-leg squat seems to produce greater gluteus maximus and hamstring group activation. The data indicate that it would be most beneficial to include the modified single-leg squat during Gluteus maximus and hamstring group training.”
.
K. McCurdy, et al
Gluteus maximus and hamstring activation during selected weight-bearing resistance exercises.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 32 #3 – March 2018 – page 594

“…..compare 14° C (cold water immersion 14° C) and 5° C (cold water immersion 5° C) cold water immersion after intermittent running. On 3 occasions, 9 male team-sport players undertook 12 minutes of cold water immersion 14° C, cold water immersion 5° C, or nonimmersed seated recovery after 45 minutes of intermittent running exercise.”
.
“Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0-72 hours after exercise.”
.
“Cold water immersion is not recommended for acute recovery based on these data. Athletes and coaches should use the time currently allocated to cold water immersion for more effective and alternative recovery modalities.”
.
D. Anderson, et al
Effect of cold (14° C) vs. ice (5° C) water immersion on recovery from intermittent running exercise.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 32 #3 – March 2018 – page 764

TheETG applied sport sciences
“The energy cost of overcoming air resistance on a calm day outdoor was calculated to be 7.8% for sprinting, 4% middle-distance, and 2% marathon running.”

C.T. Davies
Effects of wind assistance and resistance on the forward motion of a runner.
Journal of Applied Physiology…….Volume 48 #4……April 1980…….page 702 – 709

.
“…..the external work done per unit time against air resistance is about 7.5 – 9% of the total power output of a sprinter, running at maximum speed at sea level. These figures compare well with the value of 7.8% obtained independently by Davies (J. appl. Physiol 48, 702-709, 1980).”

A.J.Ward-Smith
Air Resistance And Its Influence On The Biomechanics And Energetics Of Sprinting At Sea Level And At Altitude.
Journal of biomechanics……Volume 17 #5……1984……page 339 – 347

“This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved.”
.
“We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance.”
.
“In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, 19 well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials. 10 runners had a pacer (paced group) who supported their individual pacing strategy, and 9 participants self-paced running alone (control group). Both groups could check pace using their wrist watch.”
.
“In contrast to our expectation, results indicated that the paced group reported higher pre-run anxiety with no significant differences in finish time, goal confidence, goal difficulty, perceived exertion, and self-rated performance between groups.”
.
“Following a personalised pacer might associate with higher anxiety due to uncertainty in being able to keep up with the pacer and public visibility of dropping behind, something that is not so observable in a self-paced run completed alone.”
.
C.L. Fullerton, A.M.Lane, T.J.Devonport
The Influence of a Pacesetter on Psychological Responses and Pacing Behavior during a 1600 m Run
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine – Volume 16 #4 – December 2017 – page 551

 

 

“….systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- vs. high-load resistance training protocols.”
“….studies that met the following criteria: (a) an experimental trial involving both low-load training [≤60% 1 repetition maximum] and high-load training (>60% 1Repetition Maximum); (b) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; (c) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass or dynamic, isometric, or isokinetic strength was used; (d) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks……”
.
“A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis.”
.
“Gains in 1 Repetition Maximum strength were significantly greater in favor of high- vs. low-load training, whereas no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions.”
.
“Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.”
.
B.J.Schoenfeld
Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 31 #12 – December 2017 – page 3508
.
.
TheETG strength training consists of standardized protocol with heavy weights usually done on the 4th, 10th, 16th days of each month, all year around.
Heavy weights are a stimulus for high level strength increases via adaptations in brain and nervous system rather than a focus on increasing muscle size.
.
Weights at the gym……
I do 3 reps consecutively or cumulatively with heavy weight for each exercise [definition of “heavy weight” = weight I can’t lift more than 3 or 4 reps consecutively].
I’m about 5’6″, weigh 120 – 123 lbs, I do…….
— one leg 1/4 squat = 275 pounds [free weights]
— one leg calf raise = 225 pounds [free weights]
— one leg hamstring curl one = 85 pounds [on a machine]

— single leg bounding [no weight] = 3 ground contacts one leg at a time, 2 sets
— pull-ups, palms facing one another, 3 reps slowly, 2 sets
— bar dips, 3 reps slowly, 2 sets

— bench press = 150 pounds [free weights]
— shoulder retraction = 230 pounds [machine….seated row w/elbows locked]
— shoulder flexion = 20 pounds [free weights….supine on bench, w/elbows locked]
— shoulder extension = 20 pounds [free weights….prone on bench, w/elbows locked]
.
.
see TheETG training protocols on the training packets page of TheETG website.

 

 

 

“…..impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise.”
“Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8–12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 hours post exercise.”

“These results suggest an impaired muscle growth response with local cold application compared to local heat application.”
.
R.B.Zak, et al
Impact of local heating and cooling on skeletal muscle transcriptional response related to myogenesis and proteolysis
European Journal of Applied Physiology – Volume 118 #1 – January 2018 – page 101

.

“The findings show whole body cryotherapy has a negative impact on muscle function, perceptions of soreness and a number of blood parameters compared to cold water immersion, contradicting the suggestion that whole body cryotherapy may be a superior recovery strategy.”
“Further, cryotherapy is no more effective than a placebo intervention at improving functional recovery or perceptions of training stress following a marathon. These findings lend further evidence to suggest that treatment belief and the placebo effect may be largely responsible for the beneficial effects of cryotherapy on recovery following a marathon.”
.
L.J.Wilson, et al
Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control
European Journal of Applied Physiology – Volume 118 #1 – January 2018 – page 153

TheETG applied sport sciences
Post-workout beverage provides whey protein and micronutrients.
whey protein……
— includes cysteine…….which increases glutathione
— gluthatione increased more with whey protein
— better increase in insulin compared to caseinate
— better muscle protein synthesis in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of essential amino acids in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of leucine in whey compared to caseinate
— The two main whey proteins……a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin
—– enhances neutrophil function, increases lymphocytes
– alpha-lactalbumin…..contains tripeptide [Glycine-Leucine-Phenylalanine]
—– enhances macrophage function
– alpha-lactalbumin…..high tryptophan content has neurological impact
.
.
“These data indicate that liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion ingestion enhances muscle anabolism following resistance training to a greater extent than either carbohydrate or essential amino acids consumed independently. The synergistic effect of liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion maximises the anabolic response……”
.
S.P. Bird, K.M. Tarpenning, F.E. Marino
Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men
European Journal of Applied Physiology…..Volume 97 #2……May 2006….page 225 – 238

“The purpose of this investigation was to examine the perceived barriers elite female athletes face attempting to create a personal brand.”

“Utilizing a criterion purposive sample of elite female athletes and agents who represent elite female athletes, the authors employed a qualitative analysis to obtain a rich understanding of the barriers elite female athletes grapple with regarding branding initiatives. Two central categories, with five broad themes, emerged from the literature review, theoretical underpinning, subsequent research questions, and data analysis on perceived barriers in the brand building process for these elite female athletes and their agents.”

“These themes were identified as being bold and assertive, assumption attractiveness matters, performance and something else, invisible and lacking, and proper brand management.”

“These findings add to the extant literature by identifying specific barriers that arise when seeking to build and manage the female athlete brand.”

J.Lobpries, G.Bennett, N.Brison
How I Perform is Not Enough: Exploring Branding Barriers Faced by Elite Female Athletes
Sport Marketing Quarterly – Volume 27 #1 – March 2018

“……to investigate the potential intensity–dependent effects of an acute bout of exercise on conduit and resistance artery function in healthy older adults.”
“11 healthy older adults (five males/six females, 66 ± 1 years old) completed 30 minutes of recumbent cycling at 50%–55% (low intensity) and 75%–80% (high intensity) of their age-predicted HR max on two separate study visits.”

“Our data indicate that high-intensity exercise acutely enhances conduit artery function in healthy older adults. In addition, an acute bout of exercise enhances resistance artery function independent of intensity.”

E.IWAMOTO, et al
High-Intensity Exercise Enhances Conduit Artery Vascular Function in Older Adults
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise – Volume 50 #1 – January 2018 – page 124

The quackery of traditional sports medicine……..
“Labral repair and biceps tenodesis are routine operations for superior labrum anterior posterior lesion of the shoulder, but evidence of their efficacy is lacking. We evaluated the effect of labral repair, biceps tenodesis and sham surgery on superior labrum anterior posterior lesions.”
“A double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted with 118 surgical candidates (mean age 40 years), with patient history, clinical symptoms and MRI arthrography indicating an isolated type II superior labrum anterior posterior lesion.”

Patients were randomly assigned to either labral repair (n=40), biceps tenodesis (n=39) or sham surgery (n=39) if arthroscopy revealed an isolated superior labrum anterior posterior II lesion.”

“There were no significant between-group differences at any follow-up in any outcome.”

“Similar results—no differences between groups—were found for WOSI scores. Postoperative stiffness occurred in five patients after labral repair and in four patients after tenodesis.”

“Neither labral repair nor biceps tenodesis had any significant clinical benefit over sham surgery for patients with superior labrum anterior posterior II lesions in the population studied.”

C.P.Schroder, et al
Sham surgery versus labral repair or biceps tenodesis for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder: a three-armed randomised clinical trial
British Journal Of Sports Medicine – Volume 51 #24 – December 2017

 

 

 

The quackery of traditional sports medicine…….
“There are many myths in modern medicine. Myths are good stories that are easy to remember, and when they include a mechanical explanation for changes in pain that make intuitive sense, they catch on and live for a long time.”
“One such story is that meniscal tears cause pain, which can be relieved by removal of the damaged meniscal tissue. This myth has been ‘busted’ by randomised, double-blinded trials in middle-aged and older patients demonstrating knee arthroscopy to be no better for degenerative meniscal tears than placebo surgery. But why does knee arthroscopy provide no better pain relief than placebo surgery?”

“The rationale for cutting away damaged meniscal tissue is based on the premise that the injured or damaged parts of the meniscus are the primary cause of the patient’s pain and discomfort.”

“More likely, the knee pain is explained by the presence of early degenerative changes (including degenerative meniscal tissue) or established osteoarthritis in the knee and not because of a direct link between pain and meniscal damage per se. Meniscal tears are common in the symptom-free general middle-aged and older population with and without signs of radiographic knee osteoarthritis.”

“Similarly, in patients with knee trauma, meniscal tears are frequently seen in the uninjured contralateral leg. Such studies debunk the explanation that meniscal tears always cause pain; the simple ‘car mechanic’ analogy—cutting tissue away—does not apply.”

J.B.Thorlund
Deconstructing a popular myth: why knee arthroscopy is no better than placebo surgery for degenerative meniscal tears
British Journal Of Sports Medicine – Volume 51 #22 – November 2017

 

“We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms.”
“20 adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6 to 8 × 5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~ 60 – 80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold).”

“Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively.”

High-intensity interval training resulted in greater increases in total time to exhaustion at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (38% and −4%, respectively).”

“Compared with pre-training, high-intensity interval training increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (−34% vs −43%, respectively) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (−7% vs −3%, respectively) following the total time to exhaustion trial at the same relative intensity.”

“There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after high-intensity interval training by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle.”

T.J.O’Leary, J Collett, K Howells, M.G.Morris
Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports – Volume 27 #12 – page 1648

“The neural mechanisms explaining strength increase following mental training by motor imagery are not clearly understood. While gains are mostly attributed to cortical reorganization, the sub-cortical adaptations have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of motor imagery training on muscle force capacity and the related spinal and supraspinal mechanisms.”

“18 young healthy participants (mean age: 22.5 ± 2.6) took part in the experiment. They were distributed into two groups: a control group (n = 9) and an motor imagery training group (n = 9).”

“The motor imagery group performed seven consecutive sessions (one per day) of imagined maximal isometric plantar flexion (4 blocks of 25 trials per session). The control group did not engage in any physical or mental training.”

“After one week, only the motor imagery training group increased both plantar flexion maximal plantar flexion torque and rate of torque development.”

“The increased cortical descending neural drive and the excitability of spinal networks at rest could explain the greater rate of torque development and maximal plantar flexion torque after one week of motor imagery training.”

S.Grospretre, T.Jacquet, F Lebon, C.Papazanthis. A.Martin
Neural mechanisms of strength increase after one-week motor imagery training
European Journal Of Sport Sciences – Volume 18 #2 – 2018 – page 209

Mind-Body medicine……
Mind-body medicine is founded on the basic principle that the brain controls or influences the function of all cells in the body by direct connection to them via the nervous system, or via chemical interaction via release of hormones or substances called neuro-peptides. Hence the importance of and awareness of the existence of mind-body medicine. And the importance of utilizing mind-body medicine and integrating into the practice of medicine in the United States.

TheETG recovery, restoration, adaptation —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGRecoverRestoreAdaptMasterOfSport.pdf

TheETG applied sport sciences
One of the several arguments in favor of long rather than short rest periods in interval workouts regardless of whether the workout is comprised of sprints or distance reps……..

“Repeated sprint training consists of a series of brief maximal sprints, 3–7 seconds in duration, separated by short rest periods of less than 60 seconds. However, little is known about the influence of different rest period lengths between sprints on performance adaptation.”

“We determined the influence of inserting long rest periods during repeated sprint training on performance adaptation in competitive athletes.”

“21 well-trained athletes were separated into either the short rest period group (SHORT; n = 10) or the long rest period group (LONG; n = 11).”

“The training protocol for both groups consisted of two sets of 12 × 6-seconds maximal cycle sprints with 24 seconds of rest between sprints. However, in the LONG group, an active rest period of 7 minutes was inserted every three sprints to attenuate the power output decrement during the latter half of the sprints.”

“The training was performed 3 days per week for 3 weeks.”

“Maximal power output during the repeated sprint test was significantly increased only in the LONG group.”

“These results suggest that repeated sprint training with insertion of longer rest periods is an efficient strategy for improving maximal power output compared with the same training separated by short rest periods alone.”

A.Ikutomo, N.Kasai, K Goto
Impact of inserted long rest periods during repeated sprint exercise on performance adaptation
European Journal Of Sport Sciences – Volume 18 #1 – 2018 – page 47

“…..coping strategies used by elite athletes in response to emotional abuse experienced within the coach–athlete relationship. The athletes in this study adopted emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies to manage their feelings in the moment that emotional abuse occurred.”

“Over time, athletes accessed support networks and engaged in sense making to rationalize their experiences. The potential of coping-level intervention to develop individual resources and to break the cycle of emotional abuse in sport is highlighted.”

“We suggest that as primary agents of ensuring athlete’s protection, sport psychologists need appropriate safeguarding training.”

E.Kavanagh, L Brown, I Jones
Elite Athletes’ Experience of Coping With Emotional Abuse in the Coach–Athlete Relationship
Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology – Volume 29 #4 – 2017 – page 402

TheETG food & supplements —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmeganutrientsMasterOfSport.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Eating well”.
If you grew up in America and want to move into the realm of “eating well”, or eating better, or eating “healthy”, you are at some point going to have to confront and overcome the cultural dogma you were indoctrinated into. The purpose here being to provide you with a clean slate from which to get started learning how to “eat well”.

Cultural dogma #1 = Breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The cultural dogma of “3 square meals a day”, each with a designated time frame. Ya gotta lose this.


Cultural dogma #2 = Each meal has to be comprised of a balanced consumption of food items from a set of identified food groups. Ya gotta let this go too.


Cultural dogma #3 = Food item X is a “breakfast” food, not to be consumed outside the designated time frame. Food item Z is a dinner food, not to be consumed outside the designated time frame.


Cultural dogma #4 = all snack foods, desert foods, and psuedo-meal foods are the same…..They’re all “junk foods”.


Reality…..food items such as organic thin crust “supreme” pizzas are among –the– most nutrient dense food items known to man.
Reality…..food items such as organic apple pie, organic cheese cake contain extraordinarily high levels of cell–necessary poly and mono unsaturated fatty acids, essential for brain function, immune cell function, and for production and repair of cell membranes throughout the human body.

In the quest to “eat well” its necessary to put data ahead of dogma.

Avoiding so-called “junk foods” that are packed with nutrients won’t help you eat well. Avoiding some foods in the evening because they’re “breakfast foods” won’t help you eat well. Avoiding some foods in the morning because they’re “dinner foods” won’t help you eat well.
To “eat well” you’re gonna have to remove the artificial, culturally indoctrinated time of day designations from food items.

Not all fats are the same.
Eating “a low fat diet” is more likely to prevent you from consuming required levels of essential fats than it is to help you with weight loss or maintaining weight loss…..and more likely to contribute to long term health problems that will begin showing up in no uncertain terms in your 50’s and 60’s.

The word “calorie” has no place in human nutrition.
Your cells don’t care about how many calories you consume.
They don’t care about what percentage of the food you consume is comprised of fat, protein, or carbohydrate.
They care about grams, milligrams, micro-grams, nano-grams of nutrients.
And they don’t do averages…..X calories per day. They do absolutes.
The cells of your body need what they need when they need it.
Today’s needs are not tomorrow’s or last week’s.
Learn to think and reason in these terms.

Once you’ve deleted the dogma, creating a standardized nutrient dense written food plan that repeats every few days may prove to be the easiest approach to truly getting started “eating well”, eating better, eating “healthy”.

[Pitsiladis] “Many of these compounds in a highly-trained individual do absolutely nothing from the point of view of enhancing performance…..”

“…Athletes think if it’s on a list, it works.”

[Roger Pielke Jr, director of the Sports Governance Centre at the University of Colorado-Boulder, CO, USA]…..“WADA’s expansion of banned substances has created a conflict of interest because “a bigger list implies a need for more tests and more testing, which both imply an expansion of the anti-doping industry…..”

S.Devi
Overhaul of global anti-doping system needed
Lancet — Volume 387 #10034 — May 28, 2016 — page 2188

.
ETG info: drugs & drug testing, sham & scam —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGstopdrug.pdf

 

Oral contraceptive use reduces peak aerobic capacity…..”

“….oral contraceptive use dampened V˙O2peak and Q˙peak adaptation.

“Therefore, oral contraceptive use should be verified, controlled for, and considered when interpreting physiological adaptations to exercise training in women.”

M.A.Schaumberg, et al
Oral Contraceptive Use Dampens Physiological Adaptations to Sprint Interval Training
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 49 #4 — April 2017 — page 717
.

ETG info: birth control via ovulation detection —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGnodrugbirthcontrol.pdf
.
ETG info: drugs & drug testing, sham & scam —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGstopdrug.pdf

 

“Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis motor unit after endurance and high-intensity interval training.”

“16 men were assigned to the endurance or the high-intensity interval training group….”

“……performed six training sessions for 14 days.”

“Each session consisted of 8 – 12 × 60-seconds intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 seconds of recovery (high-intensity interval training) or 90–120 minutes continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (endurance).”

“The high-intensity interval training group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold motor unit (≥50% knee extension MVC).”

“By contrast, the endurance group…..showed no change in motor unit discharge rates.”

“High-intensity interval training and endurance induce different adjustments in motor unit discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by high-intensity interval training are specific for high-threshold motor units. For the first time, we show that high-intensity interval training and endurance induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.”

E. Martinez-Valdes, et al
Differential Motor Unit Changes after Endurance or High-Intensity Interval Training
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 49 #6 — June 2017 — page 1126

Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT]
Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT] and Cognitive Enhancement Therapy tend to be the among the only treatments for depression, schizophrenia, and various forms of “mental illness” that address the underlying issues of brain cell loss.
Arguably “mental illness” is due to brain cell loss.
The drug approach focuses on neurotransmitters, ignoring the loss of brain cells that produce the neurotransmitters.
National Association Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT]
http://www.nacbt.org/
 
—– find a CBT practitioner in your area
http://www.nacbt.org/find-a-therapist/
 
—– Online counseling in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
http://www.nacbt.org/cbt-online-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-from-a-certified-cognitive-behavioral-therapist/
.
.
“Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating of the psychiatric disorders. Studies have shown that cognitive therapy is as efficacious as antidepressant medications at treating depression, and it seems to reduce the risk of relapse even after its discontinuation.”
.
R.J.DeRubeis
Cognitive therapy vs. medications for depression: Treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms
Nature Reviews Neuroscience…..Volume 9 #10….October 2008….page 788 – 796
———————————————
 
“Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. This study explored the mechanism of cognitive behavioral therapy from the perspective of individuals’ problem-solving appraisal.”
 
“Findings supported the research hypothesis that the more individuals improved their problem-solving appraisal, the more their depression decreased.”
 
“Additionally, it was discovered that the poorer individuals’ problem-solving appraisal before the cognitive behavioral therapy, the more improvement they had on depression and problem solving appraisal after the cognitive behavioral therapy.”
 
“In sum, findings suggested that problem-solving appraisal might play an important part in cognitive behavioral therapy for depression reduction…..”
 
Szu.Y.Chen et al
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal
Research on Social Work Practice……Volume 16 #5……September 2006…..page 500 – 510
———————————————
 
“The evidence base for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is discussed…….identifies the need to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions and identifies cognitive behavioral therapy as having the strongest research base for effectiveness….”
 
G.Whitefield, et al
The evidence base for cognitive–behavioural therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment….Volume 9….2003…..page 21 – 30
————————————————–
 
“Cognitive rehabilitation has shown efficacy in improving cognition in patients with schizophrenia….”
 
“…..examine differential changes in brain morphology in early course schizophrenia during cognitive rehabilitation vs supportive therapy”
 
“A 2-year trial with annual structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessments.”
 
“Cognitive enhancement therapy is an integrated approach to the remediation of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that uses computer-assisted neurocognitive training and group-based social-cognitive exercises.”
 
“Patients who received cognitive enhancement therapy demonstrated significantly greater preservation of gray matter volume over 2 years in the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, and significantly greater gray matter increases in the left amygdala….”
 
“Less gray matter loss in the left parahippocampal and fusiform gyrus and greater gray matter increases in the left amygdala were significantly related to improved cognition and mediated the beneficial cognitive effects of cognitive enhancement therapy.”
 
“Cognitive enhancement therapy may offer neurobiologic protective and enhancing effects in early schizophrenia that are associated with improved long-term cognitive outcomes.”
 
S.M.Eack, et al
Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial
Archives Of General Psychiatry…..Volume 67 #7……May 2010…..page 674 – 682

“Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation…..”
“…..interactions for total bone content…..were significant. Resistance training with ibuprofen decreased total bone content (−1.5%)….”

“Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content…..”

D.Whitney, et al
Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 49 #4 — April 2017 — page 633

My FDA warning of the week
[July 9, 2015]…..“The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is strengthening an existing label warning that non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke.”

“Examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs include ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.”

“Patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should seek medical attention immediately if they experience symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath or trouble breathing, weakness in one part or side of their body, or slurred speech.”

“The risk of heart attack and stroke with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, either of which can lead to death, was first described in 2005 in the Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions sections of the prescription drug labels.”

“Patients and health care professionals should remain alert for heart-related side effects the entire time that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are being taken. We urge you to report side effects involving NSAIDs to the FDA MedWatch program, using the information in the “Contact FDA” box at the bottom of the page.”

Hamstring, calf, or quad issues occur at times when your fitness level is moving forward.
The rate of tissue tightening as your fitness level progresses in any given week may exceed the rate [frequency of stretching] and/or effectiveness of your stretching protocol. Such issues may be independent of the strength or lack there-of…of those tissues. Strength training is the most effective rehab approach but not the primary mechanism of prevention. Stay anabolic and do formal stretch sessions somewhat frequently to keep up with the rate of tissue tightening as your fitness level moves forward. Do these things and you remove the major limitations and road blocks that are embedded in most traditional approach training programs in our sport.

TheETG range of motion —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGromsMasterOfSport.pdf

“Although there is obviously a training stimulus beyond which any additional load or stimulus does not induce further desired adaptation, the control mechanisms for the adaptive process require regular periods of overload…..”

“However, an imbalance between training frequency and subsequent recovery may give rise to an accumulation of training stress that results in a suboptimal adaptation response in skeletal muscle, termed overtraining. Therefore, the frequency of overload is important in defining the training stimulus, with adequate recovery required to ensure optimal muscle adaptation.”

V.Coffey, et al
Effect of High-Frequency Resistance Exercise on Adaptive Responses in Skeletal Muscle
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…..Volume 39 #12…..December 2007…..page 2135-2144

 

“The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species……”

“Low to moderate doses of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance.”

 

N.A. Lewis, et al
Redox Homeostasis in the Elite Endurance Athlete
Sports Medicine.....Volume 45 #3.....March 2015....page 379

Help your athletes avoid getting sick by avoiding group think.

Group think. When you’re out and about, count the number of sinks and soap dispensers next to the door handle of your office building, school classroom, or college class building that 20 to 500 people have touched so far today. How many are located next to the elevator button or auto-door button you just touched that were previously touched by 50 to 300 people so far today. How many sinks and soap dispensers are located next to that person you just shook hands with.

Group think. You’re watching that dude in the bathroom wash his hands like he’s scrubbing for surgery. But what’s this. On his way out he sneezed into his hand, then grabbed the door handle to pull it open and leave. Hmmm, those 10 guys that left after him grabbed that handle. Now they’re using that hand to rub their nose or put french fries in their mouth.

Stepping out of group think and into critical thinking.
Cold and flu viruses don’t get into your body unless –you– put them there. The adhesion molecules that viruses and bacteria use to cling to your hands can be overcome by wiping your hands on your clothes. Since the answer to the questions asked at the beginning of this post is zero [0], the assumption is that you are wearing clothes and thus you don’t need a sink and soap dispenser to be located next to everything you touch.

Group think. That anti-bacteria liquid-gel dispenser in the hallway or next to the door in you office building or school. Are you certain that stuff works? Or is it just another thing that protein pumps or something else along the membrane of a virus or bacteria will adjust to over time, further contributing to the “super bug” phenomena.
And cleaning the common surfaces at home. Are you sure that anti-bacterial spray stuff you got at the grocery store is more lethal to viruses and bacteria than a basic spray bottle into which you put water, baking soda, and salt, with no super-bug producing after-effect.

Viruses don’t get into your body unless –you– put them there.
—– program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes after you touch common surfaces when you’re out and about, after you’re done with the grocery cart, after you shake hands with somebody, after you push open the door to –leave– the public bathroom, office building, college dorm, etc, etc, etc..

—– program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth.

TheETG Competent Self-Care Packets
TheETG Immune System
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGimmuneboost.pdf

programmed fluid intake -vs- make it up as you go along…….
“Drinking ad libitum during exercise often leads to dehydration…..”
“…..to study the effect of a prescribed hydration protocol matching fluid losses on a simulated 30-km criterium-like cycling performance in the heat….”

“10 elite heat-acclimatized male endurance cyclists performed three sets of criterium-like cycling,
which consisted of a 5-km cycling at 50% power max followed by a 5-km cycling all out at 3% grade (total 30 km).”
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“Participants rode the course on two separate occasions and in a counterbalanced order, during either ad libitum drinking (drink water as much as they wished) or prescribed drinking (drink water every 1 km to match fluid losses).”
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“The data suggested that prescribed drinking to match fluid losses during exercise in the heat provided a performance advantage because of lower thermoregulatory strain and greater sweating responses.”
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Bardis, et al
Prescribed Drinking Leads to Better Cycling Performance than Ad Libitum Drinking
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 49 #6 — June 2017 — page 1244

 

“To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code.”
 
“Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation, including individuals’ explanations for how/why the anti-doping rule violation occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels.”
 
“Reasons in defence of the anti-doping rule violation focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement.
 
“The findings also deconstruct the view that “doped” athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.”
 
L.Whitaker, S.Backhouse
Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015
Journal Of Sport Sciences — Volume 35 #16 — 2017 — page 1607
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ETG info……drugs & drug testing, sham & scam —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGstopdrug.pdf

“A total of 20 sprinters (10 Male, 10 Female), including world-class and elite athletes, were assessed. Start phases from the “set” position to the first two steps were analysed.”

“Linear regression analyses showed a few significant differences between sexes when taking into account the effect of performance level: Males had shorter pushing phase duration, higher horizontal velocity at block clearing, and shorter contact times of the first two steps. Conversely, the performance level affected most of the examined parameters: faster sprinters showed the centre of mass closer to the ground and a more flexed front knee in the “set” position, longer pushing phase duration, lower vertical velocity of the center of mass at block clearing, and longer contact times and shorter flight times in the first two steps.”

S.Ciacci, et al
Sprint start kinematics during competition in elite and world-class male and female sprinters
Journal Of Sport Sciences — Volume 35 #13 — 2017 — page 1270

“It is widely accepted in the literature that athletes of West African origins achieve the best sprint performances, while athletes originating from East Africa are the most efficient at long distances. So far, no study has measured the evolution of these groups’ contribution from 100m to the marathon.”

“Speed, morphology and geographic origin of the top 100 male and female athletes (from 100m to the marathon) were collected and analyzed over the 1996-2012 period.”

“The amount of male sprinters (100, 200 and 400m) originating from West Africa increased from 57.7% in 1996 to 72.3% in 2012….”

“….female sprinters from West Africa increased from 55% to 65% over the same period.”

“For long-distance runs (3000m, 10,000m and marathon), male athletes from East Africa represented 32% in 1996 ; this proportion increased to 65.7% in 2012.”

“It also increased over the same period from 9% to 39% for women.”

A. Marc, et al
Geographic enrolment of the top 100 in athletics running events from 1996 to 2012
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness — Volume 57 #4 — page 418

Lotta push back. These studies with placebo groups starting to accumulate now.
As I’ve said for over a decade, its not the altitude, the air, or red blood cells, its the hills that come with being in the mountains. You just need the hills [if you look around you can find some at sea level too], not the altitude, not the oxygen, and not the EPO………

“The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability.”

“In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia “Live High-Train Low” and normoxia (placebo) for 8hours/day.

“Live High-Train Low” exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500m, 2 weeks at 3000m, and 2 weeks at 3500m.”

“Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions, placebo….Likewise, mean power output was similar between treatments as well as before and after each intervention for time trial, placebo, and 3-min all-out.”

“Furthermore, peak- and mean power output during repeated sprint exercise was similar between groups at all time points. In conclusion, 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents simulating altitudes of 2500–3500m conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.”

J.Bejder, et al
Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric “Live High-Train Low”: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 117 #5 — May 2017 — page 979

 

Large section with studies showing no efficacy for altitude training or EPO use…..TheETG background science info —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGsportscibackgroundMasterOfSport.pdf

Buyer beware. The quackery of traditional medicine……
“With 150,000 knee arthroscopies carried out in the United Kingdom each year, and about five times that number in the United States, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy…..surgery….to trim a torn meniscus—is one of the most common surgical procedures.”

“Considering the enormous volume, it is natural to think that there is compelling evidence for the procedure being beneficial. Remarkably, this is not so.

“It is barely a decade since the publication of the first controlled trial addressing knee arthroscopy using placebo surgery as a comparator. Since then a series of rigorous trials, summarised in two recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, provide compelling evidence that arthroscopic knee surgery offers little benefit for most patients with knee pain.”

T.L.N Järvinen, G.H.Guyatt
Arthroscopic surgery for knee pain: a highly questionable practice without supporting evidence of even moderate quality
British Journal Of Sports Medicine — Volume 50 #23 — December 2016

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placebo surgery
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ONrF689BpQk

“This study aimed to compare the force–velocity–power–time relationships of female and male world-class sprinters. A total of 100 distance–time curves (50 women and 50 men) were computed from international 100m finals, to determine the acceleration and deceleration phases of each race: (a) mechanical variables describing the velocity, force, and power output; and (b) force–velocity–power–time relationships and associated maximal power output, theoretical force and velocity produced by each athlete.”

“The results showed that the maximal sprint velocity and mean power output developed over the entire 100m strongly influenced 100m performance.”

“With the exception of mean force developed during the acceleration phase or during the entire 100m, all of the mechanical variables observed over the race were greater in men. Shorter acceleration and longer deceleration in women….”

“This highlights the importance of the capability to keep applying horizontal force to the ground at high velocities.”

J.Slawinski, et al
How 100-m event analyses improve our understanding of world-class men’s and women’s sprint performance
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sport — Volume 27 #1 — January 2017

“Studies monitoring vitamin D status in athletes are seldom conducted for a period of 12 months or longer, thereby lacking insight into seasonal fluctuations. The objective of the current study was to identify seasonal changes in total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration throughout the year.”

“52 mainly Caucasian athletes with a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration (>75 nmol/L) in June were included in this study.”

Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured every three months (June, September, December, March, June).”

“Although all athletes had a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration at the start of the study, nearly 20% of the athletes were deficient (<50 nmol/L) in late winter.

Evelien Backx, et al
Seasonal Variation in Vitamin D Status in Elite Athletes: A Longitudinal Study
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism — Volume 27 #1 — February 2017 — page 6

One of now quite a few studies on high intensity interval training, all showing the same thing whether is interval vs continuous or high intensity interval vs lower intensity interval.
High intensity yields same results with half the training.

“We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men.”

— “6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power, High Intensity Interval Training 85 [HIIT85])”
— “supramaximal (115% maximal aerobic power, High Intensity Interval Training 115 [HIIT115])”

“High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT-115 vs HIIT-85 (304 minutes vs 571 minutes).”

“6 weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2 max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity.”

M. Paquette
Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sport — Volume 27 #3 — March 2017

The study below, though done the last few years and published last Fall is on a subject matter that started me down the path that I’ve been on since the mid-1980’s. Back in the mid-1980’s when I first started coaching I was noticing that several of the top world ranked runners were getting injured, missing training, losing fitness, then racing and setting a personal best and/or world record.
This was usually followed by folks in the track media doing stories about the coach’s supposedly perfect training program. Stories where somebody would inevitably claim that the runner’s world record would never be broken.
In not being a fan of group think, it didn’t make sense to me that somebody had an optimal training program or performance level if the athlete got injured or missed training due to illness.

That started me down the road to getting interested in sport sciences.
Going there soon made me aware of how much information -wasn’t- being either acquired or applied by coaches or runners in my sport. To me that meant it was unlikely that anybody had optimized performance or designed the optimal training program. And if no one has done that, it must follow that world records weren’t at the limit of what’s possible.
From there, a rather lengthy quest began.

“Previous research demonstrates an inverse relationship between injury burden and success…..”
“…..33 International Track and Field Athletes….across five international competition seasons.”
“Athlete training status was recorded weekly over a 5-year period.”
“….relationships between training weeks completed, the number of injury/illness events and the success or failure of a performance goal at major championships was investigated.”

“Likelihood of achieving a performance goal increased by 7-times in those that completed >80% of planned training weeks. Training availability accounted for 86% of successful seasons.”

“The majority of new injuries occurred within the first month of the preparation season (30%) and most illnesses occurred within 2-months of the event (50%).”

“For every modified training week the chance of success significantly reduced.”

“Injuries and illnesses, and their influence on training availability, during preparation are major determinants of an athlete’s chance of performance goal success or failure at the international level.”

B.P. Raysmith, M.K. Drew
Performance success or failure is influenced by weeks lost to injury and illness in elite Australian track and field athletes: A 5-year prospective study
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport — Volume 19 #10 — October 2016 — page 778

Just say no to Ice and other forms of cryotherapy.

Avoid group think. Put data ahead of dogma as to follow the data -not- the crowd.

In sport, in post-workout or post-injury, swelling/inflammation is -not- your enemy, and ice is -not- your friend.
Just say no to ice baths and other forms of “cryotherapy”. Been against this stuff since I saw the first studies on it in the late 1980’s when one of my former high school runners was at college where the women’s track program was using it. Data demonstrating damage to motor nerves in the area around muscle. Its now an obsession across many sports, especially college and pro football. Whether its application of an ice pack, bag of ice, pack of frozen vegetables, or a full scale limb or body submersion in an ice bath……contrary to popular belief, swelling and inflammation is -not- your enemy.
.
The immune system drives workout “recovery” processes. Doing stuff that screws with that makes no sense.

Doing stuff that shuts down local anabolic [tissue building and repair] substances and hormones makes no sense.

Doing stuff that impairs recovery and/or adaptations to training and then saying that it improves same, makes no sense.

The human species didn’t appear on earth yesterday afternoon. We know something about how human cells function.
Don’t be do’in this crap for years, sabotaging your own advancement in your sport, and then claim that the reason you decided to take steroids is because that was your only way forward. Be a jock -not- a dumb jock.
Follow the data, not the crowd.

“….cold water immersion is widely used by athletes for recovery. This study examined the physiological merit of cold water immersion for recovery from high-intensity exercise by investigating if the placebo effect is responsible for any acute performance or psychological benefits.”

“30 males performed an acute high-intensity interval training session, comprised of 4 × 30-seconds sprints, immediately followed by one of the following three 15-min recovery conditions: cold water immersion(10.3°C), thermoneutral water immersion placebo (34.7°C), or thermoneutral water immersion control (34.7°C).”

“A recovery placebo administered after an acute high-intensity interval training session….is as effective as cold water immersion. This can be attributed to improved ratings of readiness for exercise, pain, and vigor, suggesting that the commonly hypothesized physiological benefits surrounding cold water immersion are at least partly placebo related.”

J.R.Broatch, A.Petersen, D.J.Bishop
Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo Effect
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 46 #11 — November 2014 — page 2139


“We evaluated the effect of cold ice-pack application following a brief sprint-interval training on the balance between anabolic mediators [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone], catabolic markers (cortisol, IGFBP-1, and circulating pro [Interlukin-6 and IL-1β]- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-1 receptor antagonist].”

“Twelve males, elite junior handball players performed 4 × 250 m treadmill run, at 80% of each individual’s maximal speed, followed by a rest period with and without local cold-pack application.”

“Local cold-pack application was associated with significant decreases in IL-1β, IL-1ra, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 and a greater increase of IGFBP-1 during recovery.”

“Local ice therapy immediately following sprint-interval training was associated with greater decreases….anabolic hormones supporting some clinical evidence for possible negative effects on athletic performance.”
D.Nemet, et al
Effect of local cold-pack application on systemic anabolic and inflammatory response to sprint-interval training: a prospective comparative trial
European Journal of Applied Physiology…..Volume 107 #4….November 2009….page 411 – 417

“Several studies analyzed the effectiveness of cold-water immersion to support recovery after strenuous exercise, but the overall results seem to be conflicting. Most of these studies analyzed only short-term recovery effects, whereas the adaptational aspect has been widely neglected.”

“Therefore, we analyzed the effects of repeated cooling after training sessions on adaptations to strength training.”

“Cooling consisted of 3…4-minute intervals with a 30-second rest period.” The other leg was not cooled.”

“Long-term strength training adaptations in trained subjects can be negatively affected by cold-water immersion. However, effects were small, and the practical relevance relative to possible recovery effects needs to be considered in a sports practical setting.”
M.Fröhlich, et al
Strength Training Adaptations After Cold-Water Immersion
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research….Volume 28 #9…September 2014…page 2628 – 2633

“When ice is applied to a body part for a prolonged period, nearby lymphatic vessels begin to dramatically increase their permeability (lymphatic vessels are ‘dead-end’ tubes which ordinarily help carry excess tissue fluids back into the cardiovascular system).”

“As lymphatic permeability is enhanced, large amounts of fluid begin to pour from the lymphatics ‘in the wrong direction’ (into the injured area), increasing the amount of local swelling and pressure and potentially contributing to greater pain.”
The use of Cryotherapy in Sports Injuries…..Sports Medicine….Volume 3…..1986….page 398 – 414

“The use of ice or cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injuries is widely accepted and widely practiced. This review was conducted to examine the medical literature to investigate if there is evidence to support an improvement in clinical outcome following the use of ice or cryotherapy.”

“Six relevant trials in humans were identified, four of which lacked randomization and blinding. There were two well conducted randomized controlled trials, one showing supportive evidence for the use of a cooling gel and the other not reaching statistical significance.”

“Four animal studies showed that modest cooling reduced edema but excessive or prolonged cooling is damaging. There were two systematic reviews, one of which was inconclusive and the other suggested that ice may hasten return to participation.”

“There is insufficient evidence to suggest that cryotherapy improves clinical outcome in the management of soft tissue injuries.”
Is Ice Right? Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcome for Acute Soft Tissue Injury?
Journal of Emergency Medicine….February 25, 2008…..page 65 – 68

 

“….the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or cryotherapy are common clinical practices to control the inflammatory process following connective tissue injury. However, there are contradictory conclusions on the potential of anti-inflammatory strategies to either prevent nonspecific damages or accelerate healing after acute tendon or ligament trauma.”

“Cumulative evidences also show that, apart from releasing catabolic enzymes, inflammatory cells can ultimately favor tissue healing through different biological processes.”

“Indeed, after the clearance of pathogens and other signals of danger, neutrophils will undergo apoptosis and be engulfed by phagocytic macrophages.

Macrophages will then release growth factors that can stimulate fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis during the early phase of healing.”

D.Marsolais, et al…….Inflammatory cells do not decrease the ultimate tensile strength of intact tendons in vivo and in vitro: protective role of mechanical loading……Journal Of Applied Physiology…….Volume 102 #1……January 2007…..page 11 – 17

“….randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate if Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti L10 supplementation during 14 weeks in winter can influence the duration, severity, and incidence of upper respiratory tract illness, as well as to monitor different immune parameters in the population of elite athletes.”
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“39 elite athletes were randomized either to the placebo (n = 19) or the probiotic (n = 20) group.”
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The probiotic group received L. helveticus Lafti L10, 2 × 1010 Colony Forming Units.”
.
“Lafti L10 significantly shortened the upper respiratory tract illness episode duration and decreased the number of symptoms in the probiotic group…”
“Probiotic strain Lafti L10 can be a beneficial nutritional supplement for the reduction of upper respiratory tract illness length in elite athletes.”
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D.Michalickova, et al
Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti L10 supplementation reduces respiratory infection duration in a cohort of elite athletes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Canadian Journal Of Applied Physiology –Volume 41 #7 — July 2016 — page 782

“Sports franchises often value prior head coaching experience as they evaluate head coaching candidates. This paper empirically tests whether prior head coaching experience affects team performance in the National Football League.”

“Accounting for individual coach effects and other relevant factors, I find that team performance is significantly worse beyond a given coach’s initial head coaching spell.”

“While coaches with the lowest levels of success in their initial head coaching spell have the most pronounced negative experience effects, significant negative effects are estimated for coaches at all levels of initial success.”

M.Roach
Does Prior NFL Head Coaching Experience Improve Team Performance?
Journal of Sport Management — Volume 30 #3 — March 201

Effects of alcohol & caffeine in athletes…..

“This study investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on recovery from traditional resistance exercise in recreationally trained individuals.”
“9 recreationally trained volunteers conducted four resistance exercise sessions and consumed a low or a high dose of ethanol 1 – 2.5 hours after exercise on two occasions.”

“Compared with those in the control, cortisol increased and the free testosterone/cortisol ratio were reduced after the high ethanol dose.”

“…the increased cortisol levels and reduced testosterone/cortisol ratio after the high ethanol dose could translate into long-term negative effects.”

A. Haugvad, et al
Ethanol Does Not Delay Muscle Recovery but Decreases Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 46 #11 — November 2014 — page 2175

“Alcohol decreases protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated signaling and blunts the anabolic response to growth factors in skeletal muscle.”

J.L. Steiner, C.H. Lang
Alcohol impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in a time-dependent manner following electrically stimulated muscle contraction
Journal of Applied Physiology…. Volume 117 #10…..November 2014….page 1170 – 1179

“The purpose of this project was to further elucidate the effects postexercise alcohol ingestion.”

“10 resistance-trained males and 9 resistance-trained females completed 2 identical acute heavy resistance exercise trials (6 sets of Smith machine squats) followed by ingestion of either alcohol or placebo.”

“…..alcohol ingestion seemed to only attenuate resistance exercise-induced phosphorylation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway in men.”

“This study provides evidence that alcohol should not be ingested after resistance exercise as this ingestion could potentially hamper the desired muscular adaptations to resistance exercise by reducing anabolic signaling, at least in men.”

A.A. Duplanty, et al
Effect of acute alcohol ingestion on resistance exercise–induced mTORC1 signaling in human muscle.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research — Volume 31 #1, January 2017 — page 54

“The placebo effect— a change attributable only to an individual’s belief in the efficacy of a treatment— might provide a worthwhile improvement in physical performance.”
“The present study explored the placebo effect in laboratory cycling performance….”

“….a likely beneficial 2.2% increase in power associated with experimental trials in which subjects believed they had ingested caffeine. A dose-response relationship was evident in experimental trials, with subjects producing 1.4% less power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested a placebo, 1.3% more power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested 4.5 mg caffeine, and 3.1% more power than at baseline when they believed they had ingested 9.0 mg caffeine.”

“All subjects reported caffeine-related symptoms.”

“Quantitative and qualitative data suggest that placebo effects are associated with the administration of caffeine and that these effects may directly or indirectly enhance performance in well-trained cyclists.”

C.J.Beedie, et al
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise….Volume 38 #12….December 2006….page 2159-2164

alcohol & caffeine
http://theetgtrackclub.com/do…/TheETGstopalcoholcaffeine.pdf

“The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up (general + specific) and a short warm-up (specific) on intermediate running performance (3-minute run).”

“Thirteen experienced endurance-trained athletes…..conducted 2 types of warm-ups in a crossover design with 1 week in between…”

“….a long warm-up (10 minutes, 80% maximal heart rate, and 8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between)….”

“….and a short warm-up (8 × 60 m sprint with increasing intensity and 1 minute rest in between).”

“Each warm-up was followed by a 3-minute running test on a nonmotorized treadmill.”

“Total running distance, running velocity at each 30 seconds, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, and rate of perceived exertion were measured.”

“No significant differences in running performance variables and physiological parameters were found between the 2 warm-up protocols, except for the rate of perceived exertion and heart rate, which were higher after the long warm-up…..”

“It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up….”

“….to increase efficiency of time for training or competition, these short, specific warm-ups should be performed instead of long warm-ups.”

R. van den Tillaar, T. Vatten, E. von Heimburg
Effects of short or long warm-up on intermediate running performance
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research — Volume 31 #1, January 2017 — page 37

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TheETG warm-up —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGwarmup.pdf

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[here is one of several reasons why “weekly long runs” are –not– superior to high intensity short stuff for building blood vessels in distance runners. And this is among the reasons why there are no “weekly long runs” in TheETG training program]
Exercise Physiology 101…..

“…..endothelial progenitor cells contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training affect circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels and endothelial progenitor cells functionality…..”

“60 healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-minute intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions) or MCT (sustained 60% VO2max) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group that did not received exercise intervention.”
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“High intensity interval training is superior….”
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“Moreover, high intensity interval training effectively enhances endothelial progenitor cell functionality and suppresses endothelial injury…..”
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Hsing-Hua Tsai, et al
High-intensity Interval training enhances mobilization/functionality of endothelial progenitor cells and depressed shedding of vascular endothelial cells undergoing hypoxia
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 116 #11 –December
2016 — page 2375

 


 

“The phenomenon of Lumbar Disc Herniation reabsorption is well recognized. Because its overall incidence is now 66.66% according to our results, conservative treatment may become the first choice of treatment…..”
“…..overall incidence of spontaneous resorption….66.66%….”
“The incidence in the United Kingdom was 82.94%…”
“The incidence in Japan was 62.58%”
 
M. Zhong, et at
Incidence of Spontaneous Resorption of Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Meta-Analysis.
Pain Physician — Volume 20 #1 — Jan-Feb 2017 — page E45-E52

“The ecosystem of the human gut consists of trillions of bacteria forming a bioreactor that is fueled by dietary macronutrients to produce bioactive compounds. These microbiota-derived metabolites signal to distant organs in the body, which enables the gut bacteria to connect to the immune and hormone system, to the brain (the gut–brain axis)…..”
“This microbe–host communication is essential to maintain vital functions…..”
“….the gut microbiota has been associated with a number of diseases, ranging from obesity and inflammatory diseases to behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.”
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B.O.Schroeder, F.Backhed
Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease
Nature Medicine — Volume 22 #10, October 2016 — page 1079

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“The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development.”
“….critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions.”
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Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the central nervous system. Microbes also influence the activation of peripheral immune cells, which regulate responses to neuroinflammation, brain injury, autoimmunity and neurogenesis.”
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Accordingly, both the gut microbiota and immune system are implicated in the etiopathogenesis or manifestation of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, depression and Alzheimer’s disease.”
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T.C.Fung, et al
Interactions between the microbiota, immune and nervous systems in health and disease
Nature Neuroscience — Volume 20 #2 February 2017 — page 145

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Dr Ohhira’s = 900 million CFU [number of bacteria in a capsule]
—– TH-10 in Dr Ohhira’s supposedly stronger than all other bacteria
 
Reg’Activ = 4 to 6 billion CFU of ME-3 [number of bacteria in a capsule]
—– ME-3 in Reg’Activ supposedly produces glutathione
 
animated video of probiotics
 
Dr Ohhira’s
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Reg’Activ

TheETG post-workout nutrient consumption…..
The main purpose of a workout is to induce production of specific proteins cells need in order for the body to function at a higher level, thus empowering improved performance. I drive added cell protein production beyond what the workout alone has induced by consuming a combo drink of protein + carbo that drives insulin level. Insulin is perhaps the most powerful anabolic hormone in the human body. The increase along side providing protein stimulates both, further gene transcription and translation beyond what the workout itself achieves.
To some degree the beverage is an immune system stimulator. Immune system cells not only clean up debri in brain, nerve, and muscle tissue, but also produce growth factor substances that aid cell and tissue building for improvement in functioning.
Within 5 – 10 minutes post-workout while still at the track and during the walk home I begin consumption of the beverage. It also contains significant amounts of micronutrients.

It also provides the critical range of carbos 20 – 40 grams allowing one to strike while your blood flow is still relatively high and thus a greater rate of delivery of carbos to brain, nervous system, immune system, and muscle during the first 20 – 30 minutes. That results in greater carbo available for fuel for post-workout cell function, greater carbo available for fuel for local immune system cells doing their required jobs that enhance workout recovery and forward movement of cellular fitness level, and greater carbo available for storage as glycogen to be used for fuel in the next race or the next workout.

—– starting within 5 to 10 minutes Post-workout
Post-workout beverage provides…..protein and micronutrients
The form of protein contained in the post-workout beverage is whey protein.
whey protein……
— includes cysteine…….which increases glutathione
— gluthatione increased more with whey protein
— better increase in insulin compared to caseinate
— better muscle protein synthesis in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of essential amino acids in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of leucine in whey compared to caseinate
— The two main whey proteins……a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin
— enhances neutrophil function, increases lymphocytes
– alpha-lactalbumin…..contains tripeptide [Glycine-Leucine-Phenylalanine]
— enhances macrophage function
– alpha-lactalbumin…..high tryptophan content has neurological impact

food & supplements —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmeganutrientsMasterOfSport.pdf

“Nucleotide supplementation can reduce postexercise immunosuppression and hypothalamic-pituitary axis activation in endurance exercise models. Nucleotide supplementation may aid recovery from other exercise modalities, such as heavy resistance exercise.”
“Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effects of nucleotide supplementation on the acute cortisol and immune responses to heavy resistance exercise and its effects on recovery.”

“A double-blinded, crossover, mixed methods design with 10 men and 10 women was used. Each performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol after a loading period with a nucleotide or placebo supplement.”

“Before and after the acute heavy resistance exercise protocol, and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post, blood samples were analyzed for cortisol, myeloperoxidase, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Creatine kinase was analyzed before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the acute heavy resistance exercise protocol .”

“Performance measures, including peak back squat isometric force and peak countermovement jump power were also analyzed.”

“Nucleotide supplementation resulted in significant decreases in cortisol and myeloperoxidase immediately after the acute heavy resistance exercise protocol, and significantly lower C creatine kinase values 24 hours later.”

“Greater isometric force was observed immediately after acute heavy resistance exercise protocol and at 24 hours and 48 hours with nucleotide supplementation. Nucleotide supplementation seems to attenuate muscle damage, hypothalamic-pituitary axis and immune system activation, and performance decrements after heavy resistance exercise.”

A.J.Sterczala, et al
Physiological Effects of Nucleotide Supplementation on Resistance Exercise Stress in Men and Women
Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research — Volume 30 #2 — February 2016 — page 569

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I’m not a big fan of doing or consuming things for “recovery” but am definitely into doing or consuming things for improving adaptions to training. Particularly in the areas related to the process of gene transcription, translation, brain & nervous system function, and immune function. The holy grail of long term sport performance.
The info in the study above applies to all training in general, not just strength training.

My chosen nucleotide supplements………
— ribose powder [brand name Jarrow Formulas]
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0013OQHA4/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o06_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
 
— liquid colostrum [brand name PerCoBa]
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01BCJ8LLM/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o07_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
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see TheETG training packet sections…….
http://theetgtrackclub.com/runnerpackets
 
recovery, restoration, adaptation —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGRecoverRestoreAdaptMasterOfSport.pdf
 
food & supplements —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmeganutrientsMasterOfSport.pdf
 
physiological overtraining —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGOvertrainMasterOfSport.pdf

Aerobic -vs- Anaerobic in Track & Field running events…..
Certain conclusions were drawn from some studies in the late 1960’s, early 1970’s that got proliferated into the sport community. That info got set in stone inside people’s brains for several decades.
If you’re willing to unlearn what you think you know about Aerobic -vs- Anaerobic you can advance the ball.

The subject revolves around 1 item, mitochondria……the organelles around brain cells, nerve fibers, and muscle fibers that consume fuel [carbo, fat] to produce energy and utilize oxygen to keep that process going for an indefinite period of time.
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Whether you’re a sprinter or distance runner most of your energy will come aerobically if you have enough mitochondria to make that happen.
If you don’t have enough mitochondria to make that happen then most of your energy comes anaerobically.
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Therefore, its your aerobic fitness level [a.k.a. the number and size of mitochondria], not your event distance that determines which energy system will be the predominant source of energy.
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The more velocity you put into training program design the more mitochondria you produce around brain cells, nerve fibers, and muscle fibers. Note that each year that Usain Bolt ran under 9.7 for 100m he started that season off having run under 45 seconds for 400m.
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Note that in the 1998 season Haile Gabrselassie ran world record for 10,000m 26:22 a few months after running 1500m indoors 3:31, still the #2 time in history.
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Its the mitochondria, not the event distance. Its the things that utilize oxygen [mitochondria], not oxygen delivery [EPO, red blood cells].
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And about myth #2 related to Aerobic -vs- Anaerobic…….Lactic acid isn’t what causes your fatigue.
And the disappearance of lactate within 10 to 20 minutes following your race or exercise at the gym means that lactic acid isn’t what you’re feeling in your legs hours later, a day later, or 2 days later.
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Be willing to unlearn what you have learned.
Put data ahead of dogma.

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background science info —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGsportscibackgroundMasterOfSport.pdf
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“Little data exist that specifically and accurately evaluate energy system contributions….Considerable information can be found that attempts to do so, but this data has generally been based on data in the 1970’s that inappropriately used oxygen debt to quantify anaerobic energy release.”

“The crossover to predominately aerobic energy system supply occured between 15 and 30 seconds for the 400, 800, and 1500 meter events.”

“These results suggest that the relative contribution of the aerobic energy system during track running events is considerable and greater than traditionally thought.”

M.R. Spencer, et al
Energy System Contribution During 200 To 1500 Meter Running In Highly Trained Athletes
Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise….Volume 33 #1….January 2001….page 157

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“Denis et al [1992] have reported the ability to sustain supra-maximal work lasting 30 – 45 seconds was related more to muscle oxidative [aerobic] capacity than to glycolytic [anerobic] capacity.”
B. Dawson, et al
Changes In Perfomrance Muscle Metabolites, Enzymes, And Fiber Types After Short Sprint Training
European Journal Of Applied Physiology & Occupational Therapy….Volume 78…1998…page 167

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“…..there have been relatively few investigations of the effects of sprint training on mitochondrial enzymes or aerobic power in humans….”
“The significant increases in Vo2max…..were somewhat unexpected….Changes of this magnitude are usually assciated with training programs involving several hours per week at sub-maximal intensity.”
J.D. MacDougall,et al
Muscle Performance And Enzymatic Adapations To Sprint Interval Training
Journal Of Applied Physiology…..Volume 84 #6….June 1998…page 2141

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“These findings suggest that exercise training increases brain mitochondrial biogenesis…”
J.L.Steiner, et al
Exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain
Journal Of Applied Physiology…….Volume 111 #4……October 2011…..page 1066

 

Just say no to Ice and other forms of cryotherapy

In sport, in post-workout or post-injury, swelling/inflammation is -not- your enemy, and ice is -not- your friend.
Just say no to ice baths and other forms of “cryotherapy”. Been against this stuff since I saw the first studies on it in the late 1980’s when one of my former high school runners was at University Of Texas where the women’s track program was using it. Data showing damage to motor nerves in the area around muscle. Its now an obsession across many sports, especially college and pro football. Whether its application of an ice pack, bag of ice, pack of frozen vegetables, or a full scale limb or body submersion in an ice bath……contrary to popular belief, swelling and inflammation is -not- your enemy.

The immune system drives workout “recovery” processes. Doing stuff that screws with that makes no sense.
Doing stuff that shuts down local anabolic [tissue building and repair] substances and hormones makes no sense.
Doing stuff that impairs recovery and/or adaptations to training and then saying that it improves same, makes no sense.
The human species didn’t appear on earth yesterday afternoon. We know something about how human cells function.
Don’t be do’in this crap for years, sabotaging your own advancement in your sport, and then claim that the reason you decided to take steroids is because that was your only way forward. Be a jock -not- a dumb jock.
Follow the data, not the crowd.

 

“….cold water immersion is widely used by athletes for recovery. This study examined the physiological merit of cold water immersion for recovery from high-intensity exercise by investigating if the placebo effect is responsible for any acute performance or psychological benefits.”

“30 males performed an acute high-intensity interval training session, comprised of 4 × 30-seconds sprints, immediately followed by one of the following three 15-min recovery conditions: cold water immersion(10.3°C), thermoneutral water immersion placebo (34.7°C), or thermoneutral water immersion control (34.7°C).”

“A recovery placebo administered after an acute high-intensity interval training session….is as effective as cold water immersion. This can be attributed to improved ratings of readiness for exercise, pain, and vigor, suggesting that the commonly hypothesized physiological benefits surrounding cold water immersion are at least partly placebo related.”

J.R.Broatch, A.Petersen, D.J.Bishop

Postexercise Cold Water Immersion Benefits Are Not Greater than the Placebo Effect

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 46 #11 — November 2014 — page 2139


“We evaluated the effect of cold ice-pack application following a brief sprint-interval training on the balance between anabolic mediators [growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone], catabolic markers (cortisol, IGFBP-1, and circulating pro [Interlukin-6 and IL-1β]- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-1 receptor antagonist].”

“Twelve males, elite junior handball players performed 4 × 250 m treadmill run, at 80% of each individual’s maximal speed, followed by a rest period with and without local cold-pack application.”

“Local cold-pack application was associated with significant decreases in IL-1β, IL-1ra, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 and a greater increase of IGFBP-1 during recovery.”

“Local ice therapy immediately following sprint-interval training was associated with greater decreases….anabolic hormones supporting some clinical evidence for possible negative effects on athletic performance.”
D.Nemet, et al
Effect of local cold-pack application on systemic anabolic and inflammatory response to sprint-interval training: a prospective comparative trial
European Journal of Applied Physiology…..Volume 107 #4….November 2009….page 411 – 417

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“Several studies analyzed the effectiveness of cold-water immersion to support recovery after strenuous exercise, but the overall results seem to be conflicting. Most of these studies analyzed only short-term recovery effects, whereas the adaptational aspect has been widely neglected.”

“Therefore, we analyzed the effects of repeated cooling after training sessions on adaptations to strength training.”

“Cooling consisted of 3…4-minute intervals with a 30-second rest period.” The other leg was not cooled.”

“Long-term strength training adaptations in trained subjects can be negatively affected by cold-water immersion. However, effects were small, and the practical relevance relative to possible recovery effects needs to be considered in a sports practical setting.”
M.Fröhlich, et al
Strength Training Adaptations After Cold-Water Immersion
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research….Volume 28 #9…September 2014…page 2628 – 2633

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“When ice is applied to a body part for a prolonged period, nearby lymphatic vessels begin to dramatically increase their permeability (lymphatic vessels are ‘dead-end’ tubes which ordinarily help carry excess tissue fluids back into the cardiovascular system).”

“As lymphatic permeability is enhanced, large amounts of fluid begin to pour from the lymphatics ‘in the wrong direction’ (into the injured area), increasing the amount of local swelling and pressure and potentially contributing to greater pain.”
The use of Cryotherapy in Sports Injuries……Sports Medicine….Volume 3…..1986….page 398 – 414

 

“The use of ice or cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injuries is widely accepted and widely practiced. This review was conducted to examine the medical literature to investigate if there is evidence to support an improvement in clinical outcome following the use of ice or cryotherapy.”
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“Six relevant trials in humans were identified, four of which lacked randomization and blinding. There were two well conducted randomized controlled trials, one showing supportive evidence for the use of a cooling gel and the other not reaching statistical significance.”
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“Four animal studies showed that modest cooling reduced edema but excessive or prolonged cooling is damaging. There were two systematic reviews, one of which was inconclusive and the other suggested that ice may hasten return to participation.”
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“There is insufficient evidence to suggest that cryotherapy improves clinical outcome in the management of soft tissue injuries.”
Is Ice Right? Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcome for Acute Soft Tissue Injury?
Journal of Emergency Medicine….February 25, 2008…..page 65 – 68

Placebo EPO in distance running……..

“This study aims to quantify the magnitude of the placebo effect of an injected placebo purporting to have effects similar to those of recombinant human erythropoietin on endurance running performance in “real-world” field-based head-to-head competition settings.”

15 endurance-trained club-level men……completed a randomized cross-over study of 3-km races before and after 7-day “control” and “placebo” phases.”

“During the placebo phase, participants self-administered subcutaneous saline injections daily, believing it to be OxyRBX, with no intervention during the control phase. At the start and end of each 7-d phase, 3-km running performance was assessed. Qualitative assessments of participants’ perceptions and experiences were recorded throughout and during semistructured interviews on completion.”

“Race time improved significantly more in response to placebo intervention (9.73 seconds faster) than in response to control (1.82 seconds faster). In response to placebo, participants reported reductions in physical effort, increased potential motivation, and improved recovery. Beliefs and congruence between positive expectations of the effects of placebo and perceptions of physical change during training also appeared to impact on competitive performance.”

“Compared to control, the injected placebo improved 3-km race time by 1.2%.
“This change is of clear sporting relevance….”

“Qualitative data suggest that placebo may have improved performance by both reducing perception of effort and increasing potential motivation, in accord with the psychobiological model for exercise performance, and that cognitive and noncognitive processes appear to have influenced placebo response.”

R.Ross, C Gray, J Gill
Effects of an Injected Placebo on Endurance Running Performance
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 47 #8 — August 2015 — page 1672

“This study aimed to quantify differences in patellofemoral joint stress that may occur when healthy runners alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike to gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of patellofemoral pain.”

“16 healthy female runners completed 20 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rearfoot strike and forefoot strike conditions.”

“Altering one’s strike pattern to a forefoot strike results in consistent reductions in patellofemoral joint stress independent of changes in step length. Thus, implementation of forefoot strike training programs may be warranted in the treatment of runners with patellofemoral pain. However, it is suggested that the transition to a forefoot strike pattern should be completed in a graduated manner.”

C.H.Vannatta, T.W.Kernozek
Patellofemoral Joint Stress during Running with Alterations in Foot Strike Pattern
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise — Volume 47 #5 — May 2015 — page 1001

 

see TheETG Training Packet…optimal running form —–

http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGrunningformMasterOfSport.pdf

TheETG primary training program principles……

1 — Stay anabolic. Keep the body in an anabolic state. If you get that done everything moves forward. If you don’t get that done, nothing else matters. Be highly aggressive at preventing the gradual pile-up of job time, travel, stress, lack of downtime, etc. And in this modern era of distance running it goes without saying that you should permanently place days off in your training program. That’s days, as in the plural form of that word. As in more than one.

2 — — Relatively high velocity aerobic training in interval form is all that matters. The faster you train the less frequently you’ll need to train and the lower the training volume required in your training. Repetitions in the corridor of 400m to 1 mile, the corridor of 1 – 7 minutes of relatively high intensity running. Those workouts should never be “periodized” out of a training program. They shouldn’t come and go across the course of a year or sport season as is the traditional approach in our sport. Their presence should be permanent. At the cellular level both endurance and speed emanate from relatively high velocity aerobic training. You’ll have “speed” whether you do sprints or not, you’ll have endurance whether you do “long runs” or not.

3 — Hamstring, calf, or quad issues occur at times when your fitness level is moving forward. The rate of tissue tightening as your fitness level progresses in any given week may exceed the rate [frequency of stretching] and/or effectiveness of your stretching protocol. Such issues may be independent of the strength or lack there-of…of those tissues. Strength training is the most effective rehab approach but not the primary mechanism of prevention.

So stay anabolic, have 100% of your workouts consist of reps between 400m to 1 mile, and do formal stretch sessions somewhat frequently to keep up with the rate of tissue tightening as your fitness level moves forward. Do these things and you remove the major limitations and road blocks that are embedded in most traditional approach training programs in our sport.

De-training. The reason why traditional concepts of periodization don’t optimize sport performance. Also known as….periodization doesn’t work, standardization does.

“The current study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of strength-training cessation after 25 weeks of strength training on strength-and cycling-performance characteristics.”

“Elite cyclists were randomly assigned to either 25 weeks of endurance training combined with heavy strength training (3 × 4–10 RM, 1 to 2 days/wk) or to endurance training only. Thereafter, both groups performed endurance training only for 8 weeks, coinciding with the initial part of the competition season.”
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“During the 25-week preparatory period, endurance training combined with heavy strength training group had a larger positive impact on maximal isometric half-squat force, squat jump, maximal aerobic power, power output, and mean power…..than did endurance training only.”
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“Conversely, during the 8-week competition period endurance training combined with heavy strength training group had a reduction in squat jump, power output, and mean power compared with endurance training only group.”
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“The present findings suggest rapid decline of adaptations on termination of strength training during the first 8 weeks of the competition period in elite cyclists.”
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B.R. Rønnestad, et al
Impairment of Performance Variables After In-Season Strength-Training Cessation in Elite Cyclists
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance — Volume 11 #6 — September 2016 — page 727

Studies like the one below are the reason that many years ago I set the protocol for rest periods during interval workouts in TheETG training program at full recoveries. No running or jogging in between reps. The only activity allowed is to walk, stand, sit, or lay down. An abbreviated warmup can be done prior to the next rep if necessary.

The training stimulus is in training at certain velocities not in playing physiologically nonsensical games that coaches often play with the length of the rest periods in between reps. And the lower cortisol [stress hormone] level is a more logical route to take.

 

“This study compared run-based repeated-sprint performance across various sprint phases and underlying physiological responses between active and passive recoveries.”

“Nine students completed 2 bouts (active and passive recoveries) of 10 × 20 m sprints interspersed with 30 seconds recoveries in a randomized crossover fashion.”

“Sprint times and decrements were calculated for each split (0–5, 5–15, 15–20, and 0–20 m) across each sprint. Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion were measured at various time-points.”

“Passive recovery promoted improved performance times and decrements across all splits, and lower post-test Blood lactate, HR (bout 3 onwards), and RPE (bout 4 onwards) when compared with active recovery.”

“The present data indicate that passive recovery promoted superior performance across run-based run-based repeated-sprint performance, with earlier performance deterioration and greater physiological load evident during active recovery.”

A.T. Scanlan, M.C. Madueno
Passive recovery promotes superior performance and reduced physiological stress across different phases of short-distance repeated sprints
Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:— Volume 30 #9 — September 2016 — page 2540

Newsweek, October 12, 2016

[by Roger Pielke]

The Norwegian researchers ask: “Does WADA have any tests for uncovering false positives? At the moment, clean athletes have reason to be concerned.” Being wrongly accused can end an athlete’s career.

“…..raises questions about whether the anti-doping system is biased against the rights of athletes.

The work of the independent researchers in Norway is to be commended for raising important, substantive questions about the fairness of several recent anti-doping judgments. But if anti-doping regulations are to improve, elite athletes need to rely on much more than just the kindness of strangers with expertise.

It seems likely that his conviction was illegitimate.

More generally, to the long list of improvements needed in anti-doping, we should add….improving integrity standards in anti-doping science.

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see TheETG packet titled…..drugs & drug testing, sham & scam http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGstopdrug.pdf

EPO production by muscle…….

“Erythropoietin is responsible for regulating the growth and development of red blood cells. Reports conflict on whether skeletal muscle is able to produce erythropoietin and release it into circulation and if exercise affects this.”

“To understand if skeletal muscle cells were able to stimulate erythropoiesis, independent of other cell types found in skeletal muscle, we used myoblast-conditioned media to treat bone marrow and to measure erythropoiesis through flow cytometry. We also measured erythropoietin expression and hypoxia in mice subjected to an exercise protocol designed to induce skeletal muscle oxygen stress.”
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“Hypoxia increased erythropoietin expression in C2C12 myoblasts, myotubes, and primary myoblasts in vitro by 50% to 130%.”
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“Compared with unexercised controls, exhaustive exercise increased skeletal muscle HIF1α levels by 50% and HIF2α levels by 20%. Moreover, exercised skeletal muscle erythropoietin expression was 70% higher.”

“These results demonstrate that skeletal muscle produces erythropoietin in a hypoxia and HIF-dependent manner and that hypoxia-treated muscle is capable of stimulating erythropoiesis in vitro.”

J.M. Baker, et al
Skeletal Muscle Erythropoietin Expression Is Responsive to Hypoxia and Exercise
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: — Volume 48 #7 — July 2016 — page 1294

Cold and flu season coming……..
In order to “catch a cold”, a virus must enter the body, usually through the eyes, nose, or mouth. This occurs most often when someone who has a cold, sneezes or wipes/blows their nose. The cold virus gets out of their body in this way, often onto their hands. Assuming they don’t wash their hands or wipe them off onto their clothing, towel, etc,. they then touch door knobs, hand rails on stairs, and other objects that may be common for other people to touch within a few minutes to a few hours later. If –you– then come along and touch one of those objects, the cold virus then gets onto you, often onto your hands. All that is necessary at this point is for you to use your hands to rub your eyes―nose–mouth without….first….having wiped them off on your clothes, towel, etc, and/or without having washed your hands.
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Once the virus makes its way into your body, it often finds its way into the mucus area of your nose, and/or upper portion of your throat. In these places, though it will come under attack by your immune system, it will make a major effort to replicate and proliferate. If it does so successfully, you will…..“catch a cold”.
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At your work place, at school, at the mall, at the airport, somebody with the cold or flu sneezes into their hand, wipes their nose, coughs into their hand, etc, etc. At your home, your work place, school, shopping mall, airport, those people place their hands on door handles, stair railings, water fountain buttons, escalator hand rails, etc, etc. The cold and flu viruses await you on…..door handles, stair railings, water fountain buttons, escalator hand rails, etc, etc.
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Keep in mind that cold and flu viruses usually don’t get into your body unless –you– put them there.
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3 steps to prevent yourself from putting the cold and flu into your body…….
step 1 = program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth.
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step 2 = program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth.
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step 3 = program into your brain a deeply ingrained habit to wipe your hands off on your clothes before you use them to rub or touch your eyes―nose–mouth.
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TheETG Competent Self-Care Packets
Immune System…..
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGimmuneboost.pdf

Heart disease….couch potato same as mega-runner. Buyer beware…..
Runners of multiple Marathons each year, ultra-marathons, and multiple ironman peeps have something in common with people that live sedentary, non-exerciser lifestyles.

Similar health outcomes that result from their activity or lack thereof.

The bell curve……Your cells, your immune system, your organs don’t do well with –way– too little or –way– too much exercise. People that run lots of marathons and people that used to run lots of marathons are among the most unhealthy people in America.

The take-home message……Don’t be running a marathon every month or every week. Run the Austin Marathon and then spend the rest of the year training for 5k’s and 10k’s to improve your marathon time for the following year.
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terms….
atherosclerotic plaque = stuff clogging your blood vessels

“We measured extracoronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and with coronary atherosclerosis in male marathon runners.”

“We studied 100 male presumably healthy runners, aged 50 – 75 years who completed at least five marathons during the preceding 3 years.”

“Ten runners were free from any plaque in the carotid or peripheral arteries.”

“The prevalence of carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis in marathon runners is high and is related to cardiovascular risk factors and the coronary atherosclerotic burden.”

“These data support an increased awareness of atherosclerosis prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors in marathon runners.”

K.Kroger, et al
Carotid and Peripheral Atherosclerosis in Male Marathon Runners.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…..Volume 43 #7…..July 2011……page 1142 – 1147

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“The purpose of this study was to examine the short- and long-term [up to 1 month] effects of an ultraendurance running event…..”

“Markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in peripheral blood were assessed after a single-stage 233-km (143 miles) running event.”

“Samples were collected from nine men (age = 46.1 +/- 5.3 years…)”

“….blood mononuclear cells were assayed for nonspecific DNA damage and damage to DNA caused specifically by oxidative stress.”

“Ultraendurance exercise causes oxidative stress, which persists for one calendar month depending on the specific biomarker examined. These results suggest that ultraendurance events are associated with a prolonged period of reduced protection against oxidative stress.”

J.E. Turner, et al
Prolonged Depletion of Antioxidant Capacity after Ultraendurance Exercise
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…….Volume 43 #9……September 2011…..page 1770 – 1776


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