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  TheETG Classroom

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TheETG Research Notes

TheETG Human Performance library consists of about 60 research journals across 8-10 doctoral disciplines. TheETG Research Notes are more than 3 decades of my notes from research reading from the late 1980’s to the present. Access to information and the ability to apply it is the major mechanism of success in human performance in track & field, in medicine, in health & wellness. As you continue to acquire and apply more information you continue to expand the area of what is possible. .

TheETG research notes, brain & nervous system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesbrainnerve.pdf

TheETG research notes, immune system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesimmunesystem.pdf

TheETG research notes, genetics —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesgenetics.pdf

TheETG research notes, exercise physiology —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesexercisephysiology.pdf

TheETG research notes, cancer —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesnutrition.pdf

TheETG research notes, nutrition —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotescancer.pdf

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The main purpose of a workout is to induce production of specific proteins cells need in order for the body to function at a higher level, thus empowering improved performance. I drive added cell protein production beyond what the workout alone has induced by consuming a combo drink of whey protein + carbo that drives insulin level. Insulin is perhaps the most powerful anabolic hormone in the human body. The increase along side providing protein stimulates both, further gene transcription and translation beyond what the workout itself achieves.
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To some degree the beverage is an immune system stimulator.
Immune system cells not only clean up debri in brain, nerve, and muscle tissue, but also produce growth factor substances that aid cell and tissue building for improvement in functioning. Within 5 – 10 minutes post-workout while still at the track I begin consumption of the beverage. It also contains micronutrients.
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It also provides the critical range of carbos 20 – 40 grams allowing one to strike while your blood flow is still relatively high and thus a greater rate of delivery of carbos to brain, nervous system, immune system, and muscle during the first 20 – 30 minutes. That results in greater carbo available for fuel for post-workout cell function, greater carbo available for fuel for local immune system cells doing their required jobs that enhance workout recovery and forward movement of cellular fitness level, and greater carbo available for storage as glycogen to be used for fuel in the next race or the next workout.
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Post-workout beverage provides…..whey protein and micronutrients.
whey protein……
— includes cysteine…….which increases glutathione
— gluthatione increased more with whey protein
— better increase in insulin compared to caseinate
— better muscle protein synthesis in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of essential amino acids in whey compared to caseinate
— higher blood levels of leucine in whey compared to caseinate
— The two main whey proteins……a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin
— enhances neutrophil function, increases lymphocytes
– alpha-lactalbumin…..contains tripeptide [Glycine-Leucine-Phenylalanine]
— enhances macrophage function
– alpha-lactalbumin…..high tryptophan content has neurological impact
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“These data indicate that liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion ingestion enhances muscle anabolism following resistance training to a greater extent than either CHO or EAA consumed independently. The synergistic effect of liquid carbohydrate plus essential amino acid ingestion maximises the anabolic response……”
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S.P. Bird, K.M. Tarpenning, F.E. Marino
Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men
European Journal of Applied Physiology…..Volume 97 #2……May 2006….page 225 – 238

“This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. 20 recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group.”
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“Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, whereas H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks.”
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“Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10-m intervals, and running time ( t ), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period.
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“After 8 weeks of training program, running time was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group.”
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“Running velocity also increased for totally 100 m of running distance by 4.13 and 2.35% in Com, and H groups, respectively.”
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“At the speed maintenance phase, although running time and maximal running velocity found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, running time was found to be decreased, and maximal running velocity was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups.”
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“Step length was increased at 60–70 m, and step frequency was decreased at 70–80 m in H group. Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in step frequency at 80–90 m in Com group.”
“In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and running velocity, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving running velocity, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in step length during the speed maintaining phase.”
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E.Cetin, et al
Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100-m Sprint Running
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research — Volume 32 #5 — May 2018 — page 1263

Applied exercise sciences……
“….most High-intensity interval training studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient “low-volume” High-intensity interval training is based mainly on demanding “all-out” protocols.”
“Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30min time-effort/week), non-all-out High-intensity interval training protocols, performed 2 × per week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre.”

34 sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-minutes High-intensity interval training (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-minute High-intensity interval training (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85–95% maximal heart rate, or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (76 minutes per week) at 65–75% HRmax.”

“2 × 4 minutes High-intensity interval training and 5 × 1 minute High-intensity interval training exhibited lower dropout rates than moderate-intensity continuous training.”

“…..the High-intensity interval training protocols required 60% less time commitment.”

“Only 5 × 1 minute High-intensity interval training significantly improved waist circumference and subjective work ability.”

“The present study indicates that low-volume High-intensity interval training can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) High-intensity interval training that requires as little as 30 minutes per week……may induce significant improvements in VO2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.”
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D.Reljic, et al
Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 118 #6 — June 2018 — page 1153

 

Another example of the quackery of traditional sports medicine…….
“…compare the long-term treatment outcomes of operative versus nonoperative treatment of ACL ruptures in high-level athletes.”
“50 patients with an ACL rupture were eligible for participation, and they were treated either nonoperatively (n = 25) in 1992, consisting of structured rehabilitation and lifestyle adjustments, or operatively (n = 25) between 1994 and 1996 with an arthroscopic transtibial bone–patellar tendon–bone technique.”

“The patients in the nonoperative group were drawn from those who responded well to 3 months of nonoperative treatment, whereas the patients in the operative group were drawn from those who had persistent instability after 3 months of nonoperative treatment.”
“Both groups…..assessed at 10- and 20-year follow-up regarding radiological knee osteoarthritis, functional outcomes, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, meniscal status, and knee stability.”

“All 50 patients (100%) were included in the current study for follow-up. After 20 years, we found knee osteoarthritis in 80% of the operative group compared with 68% of the nonoperative group.”

“There was no difference between groups regarding functional outcomes and meniscectomy performed.”

“…..we found that after 20-year follow-up, there was no difference in knee osteoarthritis between operative versus nonoperative treatment…..”

“Although knee stability was better in the operative group, it did not result in better subjective and objective functional outcomes.”

D.T.Van Yperen, et al
Twenty-Year Follow-up Study Comparing Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in High-Level Athletes
American Journal Of Sports Medicine — Volume 46 #5 — April 2018 — page 1129

Heart disease…..mega-runner same as couch potato.
The all-year-around marathon training, marathon races, ultra-marathons, and multiple ironman races each year.
The bell curve……Your cells, your immune system, your organs don’t do well with –way– too little or –way– too much exercise.
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“We measured extracoronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and with coronary atherosclerosis in male marathon runners.”
“We studied 100 male presumably healthy runners, aged 50 – 75 years who completed at least five marathons during the preceding 3 years.”
“Ten runners were free from any plaque in the carotid or peripheral arteries.”
“The prevalence of carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis in marathon runners is high and is related to cardiovascular risk factors and the coronary atherosclerotic burden.”
“These data support an increased awareness of atherosclerosis prevalence and cardiovascular risk factors in marathon runners.”
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K.Kroger, et al
Carotid and Peripheral Atherosclerosis in Male Marathon Runners.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…..Volume 43 #7…..July 2011……page 1142 – 1147
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“The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of carotid ultrasound to predict coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic male marathon runners. A total of 49 male marathon runners older than 45 years (mean age 53 years, range 45‐74years) received carotid ultrasound and cardiac CT angiography including calcium scoring.”
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“….48 marathon runners, 17 had carotid atherosclerosis and 22 coronary atherosclerosis.”
“Atherosclerosis in either exam was diagnosed in 27/48 (56.3%) marathon runners.”
“Coronary and/or carotid atherosclerosis can be detected in more than 50% of male marathon runners aged older than 45 years.”
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C.Burgstahler, et al
Coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic male marathon runners
Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science in Sports — Volume 28 #4 — April 2018 — page 1397
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“…..short- and long-term [up to 1 month] effects of an ultraendurance running event…..after a single-stage 233-km (143 miles) running event.”
“…..nine men (age = 46.1 +/- 5.3 years…)”
“….blood mononuclear cells were assayed for nonspecific DNA damage and damage to DNA caused specifically by oxidative stress.”
“Ultraendurance exercise causes oxidative stress, which persists for one calendar month depending on the specific biomarker examined. These results suggest that ultraendurance events are associated with a prolonged period of reduced protection against oxidative stress.”
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J.E. Turner, et al
Prolonged Depletion of Antioxidant Capacity after Ultraendurance Exercise
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise…….Volume 43 #9……September 2011…..page 1770 – 1776

“In controlled exercise settings the placebo response…..Wright et al. (2009) found that runners’ performance increased by 6.5%, and that slower runners showed a stronger placebo effect after ingesting purported nutritional ergogenic aids.”

“…..the placebo effect of caffeine on resistance exercise to failure was studied with 12 men (Duncan, Lyons, & Hankey, 2009). Performance was better when participants expected that they have ingested caffeine.”

“Another study of 12 men, drinking either plain water (control), or a labeled performance enhancer drink (placebo), or fatigue inducing (nocebo) drink, showed a modest placebo effect in peak minute power incremental arm crank exercise (Bottoms, Buscombe, & Nicholettos, 2014).”

A.Szabo, et al
Laboratory Investigation of Specific and Placebo Effects of a Magnetic Bracelet on a Short Bout of Aerobic Exercise
Journal Of Sport Behavior – December 2017

TheETG applied sport sciences……Altitude training.
We now have multiple research review articles [not just individual studies] on traditional and “live high train low.
As I’ve said for over a decade, its -not- the altitude, the air, or red blood cells, its the hills that come with being in the mountains.
You just need the hills not the altitude, not the pressure on oxygen, and not EPO use.
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“The novel hypothesis that “Live High-Train Low” does not improve sport-specific exercise performance is discussed.
“….many studies demonstrate improved performance after Live High-Train Low but, unfortunately, control groups are often lacking…….Importantly, when control groups, blinding procedures, and strict scientific evaluation criteria are applied, Live High-Train Low has no detectable effect on performance.”
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J.Bejder, J.Nordsborg, N.Baastrup
Specificity of “Live High-Train Low” Altitude Training on Exercise Performance
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews – Volume 46 #2 – April 2018 – page 129
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“The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability.”
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“In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia “Live High-Train Low” and normoxia (placebo) for 8hours/day.
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“Live High-Train Low” exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500m, 2 weeks at 3000m, and 2 weeks at 3500m.”
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“Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions, placebo….Likewise, mean power output was similar between treatments as well as before and after each intervention for time trial, placebo, and 3-min all-out.”
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“Furthermore, peak- and mean power output during repeated sprint exercise was similar between groups at all time points. In conclusion, 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents simulating altitudes of 2500–3500m conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.”

J.Bejder, et al
Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric “Live High-Train Low”: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 117 #5 — May 2017 — page 979
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“…..based off of a study using elite cyclists to assess Live High Train Low at a training center in the Jura mountains of France.”
“Unlike the vast majority of researchers who had investigated Live High Train Low , this team used a double-blind design, which is the gold standard for scientific research. It had been difficult to use a double-blind design in studies using natural altitude: athletes knew whether they were living in the mountains or at sea level, and so did researchers.”

“Only the lead researcher knew which athletes were assigned where; even the on-the-ground staff did not know, eliminating bias at another level.”

“The cyclists lived in the treatments for four weeks, during which time they were told to train normally, outside, at the natural 1,135 meters of elevation.”

“…..athletes living the Live High Train Low lifestyle did not increase their red blood cell mass or the erythropoietin levels….and that group did not see greater improvement in the tests and time trials…..than their control group counterparts.”
[Dr. Christoph Siebenmann, Carsten Lundby of the University of Zurich……Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg of the University of Copenhagen]
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“Scientifically speaking, altitude training has no effect,”
“Neither the ability to cycle far or the ability to sprint is improved on average.”
[Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg, University of Copenhagen]
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“In spite of accumulating evidence that altitude training affords no advantage over sea level training, many coaches and athletes believe that it can enhance sea level performance for any athlete, whether endurance or power is the focus in their particular sport.”
L.A. Wolski, et al
Altitude Training For Improvements In Sea Level Performance
Sports Medicine…..Volume 22 #4….October 1996…page 251
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“It has been shown that, in elite athletes, hematocrit does not correlate with performance.”
[A.Legaz, J.J. Gonzales, et al……Hematocrit > 50%: An Accurate Index For Prevention and Control Of Doping In Athletes?…..University Of Zaragoza…..Spanish Olympic Committee

“The drug erythropoietin, often called EPO……a new systemic review of existing research reveals that there is no scientific evidence that it does enhance performance, but there is evidence that using it in sport could place a user’s health and life at risk.”
EPO [erythropoietin] doping in elite cycling: No evidence of benefit, but risk of harm
Science Daily……December 5, 2012
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“….there is no scientific basis from which to conclude that rHuEPO has performance-enhancing properties in elite cyclists.”
“The use of rHuEPO in cycling is rife but scientifically unsupported by evidence, and its use in sports is medical malpractice.”
J.A.Heuberger, et al
Erythropoietin doping in cycling: lack of evidence for efficacy and a negative risk-benefit.
British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology……Volume 75 #6….June 2013…page 1406
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“Evidently, the inconclusive research findings as well as our own observations oppose popular beliefs as well as opinions of the anti-doping agencies about the ergogenic effects of Hb doping aids for cyclists. This disparity made us insecure. What if aforementioned arguments and observations are valid and those of the antidoping authorities are not?”
“We summarized the main statistical findings of our study….The analyses offered no support for the outlier hypothesis, since none of the victors in the 1990 – 2008 periods demonstrated abnormal peaks in their time performances compared to the performances of their counterparts in foregoing periods.”
H.Lodewijkx, B.Brouwer
Epo Epidemic in Professional Cycling
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport……Volume 82 #4……2011….page 740 – 754
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“I believe there is a clear need for high-quality research to investigate the effects of supposedly enhancing drugs in sport. If, as is expected, many substances in current use are found to be ineffective it will help keep our athletes safe and improve confidence in sporting results….”
[Adam Cohen, Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands]
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“……human erythropoietin administration….”
“……paradoxically, its effects are opposite of those of endurance training, namely a change in red cell mass without an increase in the total blood volume. Thus use of…..erythropoietin as a performance enhancing agent is dangerous, particularly in the less fit athlete, and probably of little benefit in the highly conditioned one.”
J.L.Spivak
Erythropoietin use and abuse: When physiology and pharmacology collide
Advances In Experiemental Medicine & Biology….Volume 502…..2001….page 207 – 224

“For decades scientists accepted an “Andean man” model for acclimatization: The body at altitude will grow a higher concentration of oxygen-absorbing red blood cells to mop up scarcer oxygen from rarified air.”

“Earlier this month, however, Beall and five colleagues reported on another distinctive people — a community of Ethiopians who live at 11,650 feet, and whose blood, by several common measures, is exactly the same as if they lived at sea level.”

“……published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Beall’s team reported on 300 people living in the Semien Mountains about 300 miles north of Addis Ababa. Testing showed they had neither elevated red-cell concentrations nor low levels of oxygen saturation in their blood — two key indicators of the Andean model.”

“The Himalayan research triggered a debate over a possible evolutionary explanation for high altitude adaptation. The Andeans, whose lowland ancestors migrated from Asia perhaps 16,000 years ago, adjust to altitude essentially the same way as any lowlander would today…….Tibetans or their ancestors, however, have been in Asia for 1 million years or more — time enough, some scholars theorize, to evolve a different approach. In Ethiopia, the two tracks may converge. Human ancestors first arose there and in Kenya as much as 4 million years ago. If Darwinian adaptation has played a role, there may be no likelier places.”

“In the Semien mountains, Beall’s team tested people of all ages, mostly herders with no particular athletic bent. Unlike the Andeans, their hemoglobin concentrations were the same as those of lowlanders. But unlike the Tibetans, they also had high, sea-level oxygen saturation levels.”
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by Guy Gugliotta
High-Altitude Breathing May Be In One’s Blood
Washington Post, Monday December 23, 2002

“The purpose of this study was to compare the gluteus maximus and hamstring group electromyographic (EMG) activation levels among selected weight-bearing resistance exercises. Eighteen young adult females with previous resistance training experience completed the study.”
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“Strength was assessed on the bilateral squat (3 repetition maximum), modified single-leg squat (3 repetition maximum), and stiff-leg deadlift (8 repetition maximum) to determine an 8 repetition maximum load for all lifts.”
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“During EMG data collection, 3 repetitions were completed using an 8RM load on all 3 exercises.”
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Gluteus maximus EMG was significantly greater than hamstring group EMG on the bilateral squat (40.3 vs. 24.4%), modified single-leg squat (65.6 vs. 40.1 %), and stiff-leg deadlift (40.5 vs. 29.9 %).”
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“The modified single-leg squat gluteus maximus EMG was also significantly greater than the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat, whereas no difference was found between the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat. Comparing the activation of the 2 muscle groups in all exercises, the gluteus maximus seems to be the primary muscle recruited whereas the modified single-leg squat seems to produce greater gluteus maximus and hamstring group activation. The data indicate that it would be most beneficial to include the modified single-leg squat during Gluteus maximus and hamstring group training.”
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K. McCurdy, et al
Gluteus maximus and hamstring activation during selected weight-bearing resistance exercises.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 32 #3 – March 2018 – page 594

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