TheETG Classroom



TheETG Research Notes

TheETG Human Performance library consists of about 60 research journals across 8-10 doctoral disciplines. TheETG Research Notes are more than 3 decades of my notes from research reading from the late 1980’s to the present. Access to information and the ability to apply it is the major mechanism of success in human performance in track & field, in medicine, in health & wellness. As you continue to acquire and apply more information you continue to expand the area of what is possible. .

TheETG research notes, brain & nervous system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesbrainnerve.pdf

TheETG research notes, immune system —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesimmunesystem.pdf

TheETG research notes, genetics —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesgenetics.pdf

TheETG research notes, exercise physiology —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesexercisephysiology.pdf

TheETG research notes, cancer —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotesnutrition.pdf

TheETG research notes, nutrition —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/ResearchNotescancer.pdf


“In controlled exercise settings the placebo response…..Wright et al. (2009) found that runners’ performance increased by 6.5%, and that slower runners showed a stronger placebo effect after ingesting purported nutritional ergogenic aids.”

“…..the placebo effect of caffeine on resistance exercise to failure was studied with 12 men (Duncan, Lyons, & Hankey, 2009). Performance was better when participants expected that they have ingested caffeine.”

“Another study of 12 men, drinking either plain water (control), or a labeled performance enhancer drink (placebo), or fatigue inducing (nocebo) drink, showed a modest placebo effect in peak minute power incremental arm crank exercise (Bottoms, Buscombe, & Nicholettos, 2014).”

A.Szabo, et al
Laboratory Investigation of Specific and Placebo Effects of a Magnetic Bracelet on a Short Bout of Aerobic Exercise
Journal Of Sport Behavior – December 2017

TheETG applied sport sciences……Altitude training.
We now have multiple research review articles [not just individual studies] on traditional and “live high train low.
As I’ve said for over a decade, its -not- the altitude, the air, or red blood cells, its the hills that come with being in the mountains.
You just need the hills not the altitude, not the pressure on oxygen, and not EPO use.
“The novel hypothesis that “Live High-Train Low” does not improve sport-specific exercise performance is discussed.
“….many studies demonstrate improved performance after Live High-Train Low but, unfortunately, control groups are often lacking…….Importantly, when control groups, blinding procedures, and strict scientific evaluation criteria are applied, Live High-Train Low has no detectable effect on performance.”
J.Bejder, J.Nordsborg, N.Baastrup
Specificity of “Live High-Train Low” Altitude Training on Exercise Performance
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews – Volume 46 #2 – April 2018 – page 129
“The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability.”
“In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia “Live High-Train Low” and normoxia (placebo) for 8hours/day.
“Live High-Train Low” exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500m, 2 weeks at 3000m, and 2 weeks at 3500m.”
“Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions, placebo….Likewise, mean power output was similar between treatments as well as before and after each intervention for time trial, placebo, and 3-min all-out.”
“Furthermore, peak- and mean power output during repeated sprint exercise was similar between groups at all time points. In conclusion, 6 weeks of normobaric “Live High-Train Low” using altitude tents simulating altitudes of 2500–3500m conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.”

J.Bejder, et al
Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric “Live High-Train Low”: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study
European Journal of Applied Physiology — Volume 117 #5 — May 2017 — page 979
“…..based off of a study using elite cyclists to assess Live High Train Low at a training center in the Jura mountains of France.”
“Unlike the vast majority of researchers who had investigated Live High Train Low , this team used a double-blind design, which is the gold standard for scientific research. It had been difficult to use a double-blind design in studies using natural altitude: athletes knew whether they were living in the mountains or at sea level, and so did researchers.”

“Only the lead researcher knew which athletes were assigned where; even the on-the-ground staff did not know, eliminating bias at another level.”

“The cyclists lived in the treatments for four weeks, during which time they were told to train normally, outside, at the natural 1,135 meters of elevation.”

“…..athletes living the Live High Train Low lifestyle did not increase their red blood cell mass or the erythropoietin levels….and that group did not see greater improvement in the tests and time trials…..than their control group counterparts.”
[Dr. Christoph Siebenmann, Carsten Lundby of the University of Zurich……Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg of the University of Copenhagen]
“Scientifically speaking, altitude training has no effect,”
“Neither the ability to cycle far or the ability to sprint is improved on average.”
[Dr. Nikolai Nordsborg, University of Copenhagen]
“In spite of accumulating evidence that altitude training affords no advantage over sea level training, many coaches and athletes believe that it can enhance sea level performance for any athlete, whether endurance or power is the focus in their particular sport.”
L.A. Wolski, et al
Altitude Training For Improvements In Sea Level Performance
Sports Medicine…..Volume 22 #4….October 1996…page 251
“It has been shown that, in elite athletes, hematocrit does not correlate with performance.”
[A.Legaz, J.J. Gonzales, et al……Hematocrit > 50%: An Accurate Index For Prevention and Control Of Doping In Athletes?…..University Of Zaragoza…..Spanish Olympic Committee

“The drug erythropoietin, often called EPO……a new systemic review of existing research reveals that there is no scientific evidence that it does enhance performance, but there is evidence that using it in sport could place a user’s health and life at risk.”
EPO [erythropoietin] doping in elite cycling: No evidence of benefit, but risk of harm
Science Daily……December 5, 2012
“….there is no scientific basis from which to conclude that rHuEPO has performance-enhancing properties in elite cyclists.”
“The use of rHuEPO in cycling is rife but scientifically unsupported by evidence, and its use in sports is medical malpractice.”
J.A.Heuberger, et al
Erythropoietin doping in cycling: lack of evidence for efficacy and a negative risk-benefit.
British Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology……Volume 75 #6….June 2013…page 1406
“Evidently, the inconclusive research findings as well as our own observations oppose popular beliefs as well as opinions of the anti-doping agencies about the ergogenic effects of Hb doping aids for cyclists. This disparity made us insecure. What if aforementioned arguments and observations are valid and those of the antidoping authorities are not?”
“We summarized the main statistical findings of our study….The analyses offered no support for the outlier hypothesis, since none of the victors in the 1990 – 2008 periods demonstrated abnormal peaks in their time performances compared to the performances of their counterparts in foregoing periods.”
H.Lodewijkx, B.Brouwer
Epo Epidemic in Professional Cycling
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport……Volume 82 #4……2011….page 740 – 754
“I believe there is a clear need for high-quality research to investigate the effects of supposedly enhancing drugs in sport. If, as is expected, many substances in current use are found to be ineffective it will help keep our athletes safe and improve confidence in sporting results….”
[Adam Cohen, Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands]
“……human erythropoietin administration….”
“……paradoxically, its effects are opposite of those of endurance training, namely a change in red cell mass without an increase in the total blood volume. Thus use of…..erythropoietin as a performance enhancing agent is dangerous, particularly in the less fit athlete, and probably of little benefit in the highly conditioned one.”
Erythropoietin use and abuse: When physiology and pharmacology collide
Advances In Experiemental Medicine & Biology….Volume 502…..2001….page 207 – 224

“For decades scientists accepted an “Andean man” model for acclimatization: The body at altitude will grow a higher concentration of oxygen-absorbing red blood cells to mop up scarcer oxygen from rarified air.”

“Earlier this month, however, Beall and five colleagues reported on another distinctive people — a community of Ethiopians who live at 11,650 feet, and whose blood, by several common measures, is exactly the same as if they lived at sea level.”

“……published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Beall’s team reported on 300 people living in the Semien Mountains about 300 miles north of Addis Ababa. Testing showed they had neither elevated red-cell concentrations nor low levels of oxygen saturation in their blood — two key indicators of the Andean model.”

“The Himalayan research triggered a debate over a possible evolutionary explanation for high altitude adaptation. The Andeans, whose lowland ancestors migrated from Asia perhaps 16,000 years ago, adjust to altitude essentially the same way as any lowlander would today…….Tibetans or their ancestors, however, have been in Asia for 1 million years or more — time enough, some scholars theorize, to evolve a different approach. In Ethiopia, the two tracks may converge. Human ancestors first arose there and in Kenya as much as 4 million years ago. If Darwinian adaptation has played a role, there may be no likelier places.”

“In the Semien mountains, Beall’s team tested people of all ages, mostly herders with no particular athletic bent. Unlike the Andeans, their hemoglobin concentrations were the same as those of lowlanders. But unlike the Tibetans, they also had high, sea-level oxygen saturation levels.”
by Guy Gugliotta
High-Altitude Breathing May Be In One’s Blood
Washington Post, Monday December 23, 2002

“The purpose of this study was to compare the gluteus maximus and hamstring group electromyographic (EMG) activation levels among selected weight-bearing resistance exercises. Eighteen young adult females with previous resistance training experience completed the study.”
“Strength was assessed on the bilateral squat (3 repetition maximum), modified single-leg squat (3 repetition maximum), and stiff-leg deadlift (8 repetition maximum) to determine an 8 repetition maximum load for all lifts.”
“During EMG data collection, 3 repetitions were completed using an 8RM load on all 3 exercises.”
Gluteus maximus EMG was significantly greater than hamstring group EMG on the bilateral squat (40.3 vs. 24.4%), modified single-leg squat (65.6 vs. 40.1 %), and stiff-leg deadlift (40.5 vs. 29.9 %).”
“The modified single-leg squat gluteus maximus EMG was also significantly greater than the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat, whereas no difference was found between the stiff-leg deadlift and bilateral squat. Comparing the activation of the 2 muscle groups in all exercises, the gluteus maximus seems to be the primary muscle recruited whereas the modified single-leg squat seems to produce greater gluteus maximus and hamstring group activation. The data indicate that it would be most beneficial to include the modified single-leg squat during Gluteus maximus and hamstring group training.”
K. McCurdy, et al
Gluteus maximus and hamstring activation during selected weight-bearing resistance exercises.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 32 #3 – March 2018 – page 594

“…..compare 14° C (cold water immersion 14° C) and 5° C (cold water immersion 5° C) cold water immersion after intermittent running. On 3 occasions, 9 male team-sport players undertook 12 minutes of cold water immersion 14° C, cold water immersion 5° C, or nonimmersed seated recovery after 45 minutes of intermittent running exercise.”
“Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0-72 hours after exercise.”
“Cold water immersion is not recommended for acute recovery based on these data. Athletes and coaches should use the time currently allocated to cold water immersion for more effective and alternative recovery modalities.”
D. Anderson, et al
Effect of cold (14° C) vs. ice (5° C) water immersion on recovery from intermittent running exercise.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 32 #3 – March 2018 – page 764

TheETG applied sport sciences
“The energy cost of overcoming air resistance on a calm day outdoor was calculated to be 7.8% for sprinting, 4% middle-distance, and 2% marathon running.”

C.T. Davies
Effects of wind assistance and resistance on the forward motion of a runner.
Journal of Applied Physiology…….Volume 48 #4……April 1980…….page 702 – 709

“…..the external work done per unit time against air resistance is about 7.5 – 9% of the total power output of a sprinter, running at maximum speed at sea level. These figures compare well with the value of 7.8% obtained independently by Davies (J. appl. Physiol 48, 702-709, 1980).”

Air Resistance And Its Influence On The Biomechanics And Energetics Of Sprinting At Sea Level And At Altitude.
Journal of biomechanics……Volume 17 #5……1984……page 339 – 347

“This study compared the effects of following a pacer versus following a self-paced plan on psychological responses and pacing behavior in well-trained distance runners. Pacing in the present study was individually tailored where each participant developed a personal strategy to ensure their goal time was achieved.”
“We expected that following a pacer would associate with goal achievement, higher pre-run confidence, positive emotions and lower perceived exertion during performance.”
“In a mixed-design repeated-measures study, 19 well-trained runners completed two 1600m running time trials. 10 runners had a pacer (paced group) who supported their individual pacing strategy, and 9 participants self-paced running alone (control group). Both groups could check pace using their wrist watch.”
“In contrast to our expectation, results indicated that the paced group reported higher pre-run anxiety with no significant differences in finish time, goal confidence, goal difficulty, perceived exertion, and self-rated performance between groups.”
“Following a personalised pacer might associate with higher anxiety due to uncertainty in being able to keep up with the pacer and public visibility of dropping behind, something that is not so observable in a self-paced run completed alone.”
C.L. Fullerton, A.M.Lane, T.J.Devonport
The Influence of a Pacesetter on Psychological Responses and Pacing Behavior during a 1600 m Run
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine – Volume 16 #4 – December 2017 – page 551



“….systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- vs. high-load resistance training protocols.”
“….studies that met the following criteria: (a) an experimental trial involving both low-load training [≤60% 1 repetition maximum] and high-load training (>60% 1Repetition Maximum); (b) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; (c) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass or dynamic, isometric, or isokinetic strength was used; (d) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks……”
“A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis.”
“Gains in 1 Repetition Maximum strength were significantly greater in favor of high- vs. low-load training, whereas no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions.”
“Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.”
Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research – Volume 31 #12 – December 2017 – page 3508
TheETG strength training consists of standardized protocol with heavy weights usually done on the 4th, 10th, 16th days of each month, all year around.
Heavy weights are a stimulus for high level strength increases via adaptations in brain and nervous system rather than a focus on increasing muscle size.
Weights at the gym……
I do 3 reps consecutively or cumulatively with heavy weight for each exercise [definition of “heavy weight” = weight I can’t lift more than 3 or 4 reps consecutively].
I’m about 5’6″, weigh 120 – 123 lbs, I do…….
— one leg 1/4 squat = 275 pounds [free weights]
— one leg calf raise = 225 pounds [free weights]
— one leg hamstring curl one = 85 pounds [on a machine]

— single leg bounding [no weight] = 3 ground contacts one leg at a time, 2 sets
— pull-ups, palms facing one another, 3 reps slowly, 2 sets
— bar dips, 3 reps slowly, 2 sets

— bench press = 150 pounds [free weights]
— shoulder retraction = 230 pounds [machine….seated row w/elbows locked]
— shoulder flexion = 20 pounds [free weights….supine on bench, w/elbows locked]
— shoulder extension = 20 pounds [free weights….prone on bench, w/elbows locked]
see TheETG training protocols on the training packets page of TheETG website.




“…..impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise.”
“Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8–12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 hours post exercise.”

“These results suggest an impaired muscle growth response with local cold application compared to local heat application.”
R.B.Zak, et al
Impact of local heating and cooling on skeletal muscle transcriptional response related to myogenesis and proteolysis
European Journal of Applied Physiology – Volume 118 #1 – January 2018 – page 101


“The findings show whole body cryotherapy has a negative impact on muscle function, perceptions of soreness and a number of blood parameters compared to cold water immersion, contradicting the suggestion that whole body cryotherapy may be a superior recovery strategy.”
“Further, cryotherapy is no more effective than a placebo intervention at improving functional recovery or perceptions of training stress following a marathon. These findings lend further evidence to suggest that treatment belief and the placebo effect may be largely responsible for the beneficial effects of cryotherapy on recovery following a marathon.”
L.J.Wilson, et al
Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control
European Journal of Applied Physiology – Volume 118 #1 – January 2018 – page 153