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TheETG Human Psychology

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TheETG human psyc related packets

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TheETG human psychology —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGpsychology.pdf

TheETG parenting —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGParentcoach.pdf

The Way….of life —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGTheWaytolive.pdf

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TheETG mind-body medicine —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmindbodymed.pdf

TheETG repair of brain cell overwork, overwhelm, “mental illness” —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGbrain.pdf

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TheETG mechanisms of functional romantic relationships —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGromanticrelationships.pdf

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ETG info: addiction —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGreverseaddiction.pdf

ETG info: major social issues —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGSocialIssues.pdf

ETG info: serial rapist-killer, child molester —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGunderstandingserialrapekillermolester.pdf

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TheETG model of prisons —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGprisonmodel.pdf

 

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TheETG Human Psychology Message Of The Day

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[Iyanla Vanzant]—“Ladies who are in a hurry to find the right man or get married, remember a piece of Biblical advice. Ruth patiently waited for her mate Boaz. You must wait patiently for your Boaz and never settle for any of his relatives, Lyin-az, Cheatin-az, Dumb-az, Drunk-az, Cheap-az, Lazy-az, Lockedup-az, Goodfonuthin-az and especially his third cousin, Beatinyo-az. Make sure your Boaz respects Yo-az.”
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[Iyanla Vanzant]—“Don’t stay in a relationship to avoid being alone. Stay in the relationship because it is your choice, not your only option.”

“Defining the environmental context in which genes enhance disease susceptibility can provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex disorders. We report that the intra-uterine environment modulates the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk (in this study, genome-wide association study–derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs)).”
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“In independent samples from the United States, Italy, and Germany, the liability of schizophrenia explained by polygenic risk scores is more than five times greater in the presence of early-life complications compared with their absence.”
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“Patients with early-life complications histories have significantly higher polygenic risk scores than patients without early-life complications histories, which is confirmed in additional samples from Germany and Japan. The gene set composed of schizophrenia loci that interact with early-life complications is highly expressed in placenta, is differentially expressed in placentae from complicated in comparison with normal pregnancies, and is differentially upregulated in placentae from male compared with female offspring.”
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“Pathway analyses reveal that genes driving the polygenic risk scores-early-life complications interaction are involved in cellular stress response…..”
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“We conclude that a subset of the most significant genetic variants associated with schizophrenia converge on a developmental trajectory sensitive to events that affect the placental response to stress, which may offer insights into sex biases and primary prevention.”
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G.Ursini, et al
Convergence of placenta biology and genetic risk for schizophrenia
Nature Medicine — Volume 27 #6 — June 2018 — page 792
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TheETG repair of brain cell overwork, overwhelm, “mental illness” —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGbrain.pdf

 

 

“Abnormalities within hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis might interact with other neurobiological systems to enhance the risk of psychosis.”
“More knowledge about how various stress components interact can advance understanding of the link between psychosis and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.”
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“We examined 41 ultra high-risk patients and 40 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophreniia patients and compared them with 47 matched controls. The Perceived Stress Scale and the Recent Life Events Questionnaire were used to assess the stress levels. Day-time saliva samples were taken to measure cortisol.”
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“Only the ultra high-risk patients, had a higher cortisol increase just after awakening compared to healthy controls.”
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“Symptom severity during the very early phase of illness ultra high-risk patients seems to be associated with altered cortisol increase. Longitudinal studies in ultra high-risk patients would be useful to examine how stress levels affect the course of the illness.”
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D.Nordholm, et al
Multiple measures of HPA axis function in ultra high risk and first-episode schizophrenia patients
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 92 — June 2018

[Joyce Meyer]—“You can’t use your past as an excuse to stay that way. Take responsibility for your behavior today.”

[Joel Osteen]—“Your habits today will determine your future. Examine your life, take inventory of your behaviors, and when you find something that’s not right, be quick to change.”

[Iyanla Vanzant]—“Harmony means creating a life in which everything gives to and supports every other aspect of your life. It requires that your mind and heart, your work and play, your physical reality and spiritual reality enhance each other and add value to others.”

terms…..
— leukocytes = a type of immune system cells
— telomeres = things at the end of your DNA strands, their length is used to measure the rate of aging of certain cells
study…..
“Reduced leukocyte telomere length has been found to be associated with multiple common age-related diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. A link has also been suggested between shortened leukocyte telomere length and major depressive disorder, suggesting that major depressive disorder may be a disease of accelerated aging.”

“This prospective, longitudinal study examined the association between depression diagnosis at baseline and change in leukocyte telomere length over two years in a well-characterized sample of N = 117 adults with or without major depressive disorder at baseline, using rigorous entry criteria.”

“Participants aged 18–70….”

“Individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline had greater leukocyte telomere length shortening over two years than individuals without major depressive disorder, even after controlling for differences in age, sex, and body mass index.”

“A baseline diagnosis of major depressive disorder prospectively predicted leukocyte telomere length shortening over two years. Our results provide further support for major depressive disorder as a disease associated with accelerated aging……”
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M.C.Vance, et al
Prospective association between major depressive disorder and leukocyte telomere length over two years
Psychoneuroendocrinology – Volume 90 – April 2018 – page 157

“The present study compares community-based minor-attracted persons with and without histories of sexual activity with children.”
“Minor-attracted actors (N = 342) were significantly older than non-actors (N = 223), with longer duration of pedophilic attraction, more antisocial traits, greater attraction to boys, greater difficulty controlling their attraction, and more positive attitudes toward adult-child sexual activity.:

“Additionally, more minor-attracted actors reported prior mental health treatment, nonsexual offenses, and childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse.”

“Over a third of the whole sample reported chronic suicidal ideation.”

“These findings support the existence of minor-attracted persons who successfully refrain from sexually engaging with children, identifying multiple protective and risk factors.”
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L Cohen, N.Ndukwe, Z.Yaseen, I.Galynker
Comparison of Self-Identified Minor-Attracted Persons Who Have and Have Not Successfully Refrained From Sexual Activity With Children
Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy – Volume 44 #3 – page 217
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“The recurrent use of child sexual abuse images for sexual arousal is considered a valid indicator for the existence of a pedophilic preference, which in turn represents a significant risk factor for committing contact offenses against children.”

“Treatment programs for (potentially) sexually delinquent men endeavor to reduce the risk to offend by addressing relevant risk factors and emphasizing functional and socially acceptable alternative behaviors. Users of child sexual abuse images are a particular target group for prevention services and it has been suggested that the primary treatment focus should be on sexual self-regulation deficits.”
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A.Konrad, T.Amelung, K.M.Beier
Misuse of Child Sexual Abuse Images: Treatment Course of a Self-Identified Pedophilic Pastor
Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy – Volume 44 #3 – page 281

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ETG info: serial rapist-killer, child molester
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ETG info: addiction
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“…..associations between physical exercise and cognitive function across different age groups in a nationwide population-based sample of adults aged 18–79 years in Germany.”
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“Cognitive function was assessed in the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (2009–2012, n = 3535), using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery.”
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“Compared to no exercise, more weekly physical exercise was associated with better executive function….”
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“Higher levels of physical exercise were associated with better executive function and memory in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses with no evidence for differential effects by age.”
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B.Gaertner, et al
Physical exercise and cognitive function across the life span: Results of a nationwide population-based study
Journal Of Science & Medicine In Sport – Volume 21 #5 – May 2018 – page 489

Sunset meditation and evening walk along the Colorado river that bisects downtown Austin. Sunset meditation and evening walk along the Colorado river that bisects downtown Austin.
Production of brain neurotrophins, neuropeptides, immune system cells, etc, etc.
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Hundreds of fellow residents large and small out on the trail in the evenings running, walking, baby strolling, etc. Makes Austin a great place to live.

[Today, by Beah Richards]
Today is ours
Let’s live it

Love is strong
Let’s give it

 

A song can help
Let’s sing it

Peace is dear
Let’s bring it

The past is gone
Don’t rue it

Our work is here
Lets do it

Our world is wrong
Let’s right it

The battle hard
Let’s fight it

The road is rough
Let’s clear it

The future vast
Don’t fear it

Is faith asleep?
Let’s wake it

Today is ours
Let’s take it!

“Recently developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans.”

“We also examined whether accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6.5-year medical record review period.”

“339 genotype-confirmed white, non-Hispanic, middle-aged, trauma-exposed veterans underwent psychiatric assessment and genome-wide DNAm analysis.”

“Medical records were available for a subset of 241 veterans and were reviewed approximately 6.5 years after DNA collection and PTSD assessment.”

“PTSD hyperarousal symptoms were associated with accelerated DNAm age but trauma exposure and total PTSD severity were not. Accelerated DNAm age was also associated with 13% increased risk for all-cause mortality during the medical record review period.”

“Findings of this study replicate the association between PTSD and accelerated DNAm age and suggest that this effect may be specific to the hyperarousal symptom cluster.”

“Results point to the potential utility of DNAm age algorithms for identifying individuals who are aging at an accelerated rate and for determining the factors that influence this process.”

E.J.Wolf, et al
Accelerated DNA Methylation Age: Associations With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mortality
Psychosomatic Medicine – Volume 80 #1 – January 2018 – page 42

 

Mind-Body medicine……
Mind-body medicine is founded on the basic principle that the brain controls or influences the function of all cells in the body by direct connection to them via the nervous system, or via chemical interaction via release of hormones or substances called neuro-peptides. Hence the importance of and awareness of the existence of mind-body medicine. And the importance of utilizing mind-body medicine and integrating into the practice of medicine in the United States.

TheETG mind-body medicine —–
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmindbodymed.pdf

“Poor omega-3 fatty acid status has been linked to anxiety in the general population…..”
“Whole blood samples were obtained from 54 female collegiate athletes and analyzed for fatty acids as a part of this cross-sectional observational study.”

“Both blood and dietary omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with general but not sport-specific anxiety in female collegiate athletes during an off-season period. Randomized trials should be conducted to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on anxiety and mental toughness in athletes.”

P.B. Wilson, L.A.Madrigal
Associations among Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status, Anxiety, and Mental Toughness in Female Collegiate Athletes
Journal Of The American College Of Nutrition — Volume 36 #7 – 2017 – page 602

“…..coping strategies used by elite athletes in response to emotional abuse experienced within the coach–athlete relationship. The athletes in this study adopted emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies to manage their feelings in the moment that emotional abuse occurred.”

“Over time, athletes accessed support networks and engaged in sense making to rationalize their experiences. The potential of coping-level intervention to develop individual resources and to break the cycle of emotional abuse in sport is highlighted.”

“We suggest that as primary agents of ensuring athlete’s protection, sport psychologists need appropriate safeguarding training.”

E.Kavanagh, L Brown, I Jones
Elite Athletes’ Experience of Coping With Emotional Abuse in the Coach–Athlete Relationship
Journal Of Applied Sport Psychology – Volume 29 #4 – 2017 – page 402

“While few treatment options exist for low sexual desire and arousal, the most common sexual dysfunction in women, a growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based approaches.”
“….we designed and pilot-tested an eight-session group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for sexuality (MBCT-S) program that includes more extensive practice of mindfulness skills and closely aligns with the evidence-based MBCT program for depression and anxiety. A total of 26 women (mean age 43.9, range 25 to 63) with a diagnosis of sexual interest/arousal disorder participated in eight weekly group sessions…”
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“The majority of women attended all sessions and completed the recommended at-home mindfulness exercises.”
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“Compared to baseline, women reported significant improvements in sexual desire, overall sexual function, and sex-related distress, regardless of treatment expectations, relationship duration, or low desire duration.”
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“Depressed mood and mindfulness also significantly improved and mediated increases in sexual function. These pilot data suggest that eight-session MBCT-S is feasible and significantly improves sexual function….”
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L.Q. P.Paterson, A.B.Handy, L.A.Brotto
A Pilot Study of Eight-Session Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Adapted for Women’s Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder
Journal of Sex Research — Volume 54 #7 — 2017 — page 850

 

UCLA free guided imagery, mindfulness medication online

http://marc.ucla.edu/mindful-meditations

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“Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal of power.”

“We report a field study and an experiment among managers and other powerful professionals and an experiment in which participants were assigned to a powerful role. Across studies, we found a higher tendency to take advice among those who construed their power as a responsibility rather than as an opportunity.”

“This effect of the construal of power on advice taking was mediated by a heightened perceived value of advice, not by decreased confidence in own judgments or sense of power. Accordingly, the increase in advice taking when power was construed as a responsibility was observed regardless of whether the advice came from subordinates, expert advisors, or a less powerful teammate.”

“This highlights the relevance of considering how power holders construe their power in order to understand their tendency to take advice from others.”

F.R.C. De Wit, et al
Whether power holders construe their power as responsibility or opportunity influences their tendency to take advice from others
Journal of Organizational Behavior — Volume 38 #7 — September 2017 — page 923

“Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving.”

“Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension.”

“In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000 ml of mineral water within 10 minutes directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not.”

“In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed.”

“This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients’ subjective level of craving.”

“In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed.”

“Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders.”

A. Koopmann, et al.
Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 85 — November 2017 — page 56

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ETG info: addiction —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGreverseaddiction.pdf

Our Kindergarten thru college…educational system.
Is one where we blindly hope that millions of folks live in households where self-worth is synonymous with good grades, and thus everyone behaves accordingly in school regardless of curriculum content or quality of presentation.
— where we value grades, diplomas, and degrees over critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem solving ability

— Where we want you to read, acquire, and understand large quantities of information without teaching you learning skills [reading velocity, photographic memory, audio recording memory]

— Where we want you to sit at a desk for 6 hours a day though we know that physical activity is required for normal brain function in information acquisition, storage, and recall ability.

— Where most of the information we expect you to acquire is information you can use only on a trivia TV game show, and we’ll spend $Billions testing you on it and prepping you for those tests, and spend hours arguing about whether or not we should use the standardized tests and teach to those tests

— Where the cliché phrase, a “well rounded education” is a code phrase academicians use to put lipstick on a pig

— Where the letters “AP” are a badge of honor for teenager and parent that many colleges choose to ignore, not a class offering information you’ll need to know in life or on your future job

TheETG school curriculum —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/docum…/TheETGschoolcurriculum.pdf

TheETG academic training —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGLearning.pdf

Our country has reached a point where a number of folks on the FBI watch list have carried out attacks. A number of folks in counseling with a psychologist have carried out rapes, child molestations, spouse assault, etc, etc.
Obviously we’re not gonna fix these situations on the civil liberties side of things. That leaves the human psychology side.
The place that as a country we’ve been unwilling to go because “touchy feely” isn’t allowed here.
Therefore in our homes and at our schools we produce socially acceptable sociopaths at epidemic levels with no concern until somebody acts out. You need a license to drive to down the street to the corner store but only need a sperm and an egg to be a parent. And we’re ok with that.

Rage-aholics, molesters, serial rapists. Since we don’t understand the psychology [or don’t want to] we stamp it all as “its genetic”.

Stomp the feet, pump the fist, call somebody a low-life scumbag.
That is now officially the United States Of America’s stereotyped standardized response to the date rapist, the wife beater, the school shooter, the child molester, the serial killer, etc, etc.

Its the 21rst century.
Lets decide its ok to rap our brains around human psychology.
We don’t have to be know-nothings. Its the “information age” we know something.
Gotta be willing though to part ways with the Sigmun Freud, the prescription pad, the time-out and the spanking, slapping, yelling and enter the current century to do the teaching of real mental health and real parenting.
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TheETG Model Of Understanding Serial Rapist, Serial Killer, Child Molester
http://theetgtrackclub.com/…/TheETGunderstandingserialrapek…

TheETG Parenting Packet
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGParentcoach.pdf

TheETG Human Psychology Packet
http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGpsychology.pdf

 

Major Mechanisms of a Functional Romantic Relationship

1. Stability, Security, Expectations

Commitment is a verb, reflected in one’s —–planned and purposeful actions—– to create…stability, secure attachment, and emotional security. Both people must be committed to making deposits and investments into each other, major withdrawls avoided. Identify and share up front, major principles and ideals that each person values and lives by. Several major values must be common to both people, and each person must commit and have integrity to the common value system. Discuss expectations each person has of the other, and there must be a commitment to meet reasonable expectations each person has of the other. Create an environment of unconditional attention, affection, and praise.

2. Self-Development

Invest in your own self-development. Accept the challenge and opportunity to become more powerful within yourself. Avoid seeking to use your relationship as a distraction from yourself. Choose to never pick your relationship partner based on his/her ability or willingness to be a co-conspirator or facilitator in you maintaining your weaknesses, faults, personal problems, etc.. And always remember, there can be no relationship, without friendship. If there can be no friendship without the relationship………this highlights something within yourself, and is most likely a large part of why the relationship will have difficulty. There should never be a time before, during, or after the relationship when one says….”We can’t be friends”….I can never see you again”..,,,,”I will never speak to you again.”

3. Resolving Conflicts

Commitment to logic, reason, and rationality as the highest priority during conflicts. Commitment to creating solution oriented win-win situations in solving conflicts. Show kindness and love…always….no matter what! Remember that love is a verb. Never repay, evil for evil. Always do what is good for building up yourself, and your relationship partner. Avoid entering the typical contest of seeing which person can hurt the other more, or which person can make the other more jealous. Avoid using “the silent treatment” to communicate. Letters or other written communications are usually best, in that they allow you to speak uninterrupted, and express everything you want to communicate. Speak directly. Avoid using sarcasm and statements intended to hurt or shame. Avoid using “put-downs” to defend your hurt. Speak openly and directly to the person about what you feel….. “especially” if you feel hurt or frustrated. Be strong by giving yourself permission to feel hurt by what the person has said and/or done.

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TheETG mechanisms of functional romantic relationships —–

http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGromanticrelationships.pdf

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Today……by Beah Richards
Today is ours, let’s live it
And love is strong, let’s give it
A song can help, let’s sing it
And peace is dear, let’s bring it
The past is gone, don’t rue it
Our work is here, let’s do it
Our world is wrong, let’s right it
The battle hard, let’s fight it
The road is rough, let’s clear it
The future vast, don’t fear it
Is faith asleep? Let’s wake it
Today is ours, let’s take it
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Was watching some of the shows accumulated on my DVR.
Heard this poem recited by mega-actor Lynn Whitfield at the end of her interview on one of my favorite shows on OWN called “Oprah’s Master Class”.

“Current evidence indicates that sexual differentiation of the human brain occurs during fetal and neonatal development and programs our gender identity—our feeling of being male or female and our sexual orientation as hetero-, homo-, or bisexual.”

“This sexual differentiation process is accompanied by many structural and functional brain differences among these groups.”

“The excellent imaging research of Ivanka Savic’s group in past years has provided strong evidence for structural and functional brain differences related to gender and sexual orientation. The study of these differences has emerged from an era of prejudice and fear such as I experienced 20 years ago.”

“Neurobiological research related to sexual orientation in humans is only just gathering momentum, but the evidence already shows that humans have a vast array of brain differences, not only in relation to gender, but also in relation to sexual orientation.”

D.F. Swaab
Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences
Volume 105 #30 — 2008 — page 10273
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“….brain research has revealed structural differences in the hypothalamus in relation to biological sex and sexual orientation.”
“Differences in size and cell number of various nuclei in the hypothalamus for homosexual versus heterosexual men have recently been reported in two studies. We have found that a cluster of cells in the preoptic area of the human hypothalamus contains about twice as many cells in young adult men as in women.”

“We have called this cluster the sexually dimorphic nucleus.”

“Sexual differentiation to the human brain takes place much later than originally claimed. At birth the sexually dimorphic nucleus contains only some 20% of the cells found at 2 to 4 years of age. The cell number rapidly increases in boys and girls at the same rate until 2 to 4 years of age. After that age period, a decrease in cell number takes place in girls, but not in boys. This causes the sexual differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus.”

This postnatal period of hypothalamic differentiation indicates that, in addition to genetic factors, a multitude of environmental and psychosocial factors may have profound influence on the sexual differentiation of the brain.”

“…..in a sample of brains of homosexual men we did find that an area of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus contains twice as many cells as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of a heterosexual group.”

A recent report by LeVay claims that another nucleus, INAH-3, is more than twice as large in heterosexual as in homosexual men, whereas Allen and Gorski found that the anterior commissure was larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men or women.”

D.F. Swaab, L.J.Gooren, M.A.Hofman
Brain Research, gender and sexual orientation
Journal Of Homosexuality — Volume 28 #3 & 4 — 1995 — page 283

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ETG info: major social issues —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGSocialIssues.pdf

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Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT]
Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT] and Cognitive Enhancement Therapy tend to be the among the only treatments for depression, schizophrenia, and various forms of “mental illness” that address the underlying issues of brain cell loss.
Arguably “mental illness” is due to brain cell loss.
The drug approach focuses on neurotransmitters, ignoring the loss of brain cells that produce the neurotransmitters.
National Association Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT]
http://www.nacbt.org/
 
—– find a CBT practitioner in your area
http://www.nacbt.org/find-a-therapist/
 
—– Online counseling in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
http://www.nacbt.org/cbt-online-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-from-a-certified-cognitive-behavioral-therapist/
“Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating of the psychiatric disorders. Studies have shown that cognitive therapy is as efficacious as antidepressant medications at treating depression, and it seems to reduce the risk of relapse even after its discontinuation.”
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R.J.DeRubeis
Cognitive therapy vs. medications for depression: Treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms
Nature Reviews Neuroscience…..Volume 9 #10….October 2008….page 788 – 796
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“Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. This study explored the mechanism of cognitive behavioral therapy from the perspective of individuals’ problem-solving appraisal.”
 
“Findings supported the research hypothesis that the more individuals improved their problem-solving appraisal, the more their depression decreased.”
 
“Additionally, it was discovered that the poorer individuals’ problem-solving appraisal before the cognitive behavioral therapy, the more improvement they had on depression and problem solving appraisal after the cognitive behavioral therapy.”
 
“In sum, findings suggested that problem-solving appraisal might play an important part in cognitive behavioral therapy for depression reduction…..”
 
Szu.Y.Chen et al
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal
Research on Social Work Practice……Volume 16 #5……September 2006…..page 500 – 510
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“The evidence base for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is discussed…….identifies the need to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions and identifies cognitive behavioral therapy as having the strongest research base for effectiveness….”
 
G.Whitefield, et al
The evidence base for cognitive–behavioural therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment….Volume 9….2003…..page 21 – 30
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“Cognitive rehabilitation has shown efficacy in improving cognition in patients with schizophrenia….”
 
“…..examine differential changes in brain morphology in early course schizophrenia during cognitive rehabilitation vs supportive therapy”
 
“A 2-year trial with annual structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessments.”
 
“Cognitive enhancement therapy is an integrated approach to the remediation of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia that uses computer-assisted neurocognitive training and group-based social-cognitive exercises.”
 
“Patients who received cognitive enhancement therapy demonstrated significantly greater preservation of gray matter volume over 2 years in the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, and significantly greater gray matter increases in the left amygdala….”
 
“Less gray matter loss in the left parahippocampal and fusiform gyrus and greater gray matter increases in the left amygdala were significantly related to improved cognition and mediated the beneficial cognitive effects of cognitive enhancement therapy.”
 
“Cognitive enhancement therapy may offer neurobiologic protective and enhancing effects in early schizophrenia that are associated with improved long-term cognitive outcomes.”
 
S.M.Eack, et al
Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial
Archives Of General Psychiatry…..Volume 67 #7……May 2010…..page 674 – 682

“Pregnant women’s placental gene expression differed by socioeconomic status.”
“Profiles of lower socioeconomic status women suggested immune activation and tissue immaturity.”

“Cord blood cells of low socioeconomic status newborns also showed indications of immaturity.”
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G.E.Miller, et al
Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with transcriptional indications of greater immune activation and slower tissue maturation in placental biopsies and newborn cord blood
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity — Volume 64 — August 2017 — page 276

“Early life adversity is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood.”
“Although the pathophysiological effects of Early life adversity are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma).”

“Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects Early life adversity has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes.”
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“Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in Early life adversity.”
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“We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the Early life adversity immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity.”
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“Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative Early life adversity-associated outcomes.”
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M.M.C.Elwnspoek, et al
The effects of early life adversity on the immune system
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 82 — August 2017 — page 140

Nutrition Medicine 101
“…….double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of nutritional
supplements on 231 young adult prisoners, comparing disciplinary
offences before and during supplementation.”

“Compared with placebos, those receiving the active capsules
committed an average of 26.3% fewer offences.”

“Compared to baseline, the effect on those taking active
supplements for a minimum of 2 weeks was an average 35.1%
reduction of offences.”

“Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by
vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications
for those eating poor diets in the community.”

C.B.Gesch, et al
Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners Randomised, placebo-controlled trial
The British Journal of Psychiatry…..Volume 181…..2002…..page 22 – 28

“That’s why its called a currency, its a current.
It runs through every life. Its like water.
Money is something that flows. And when we try to hoard it and hold onto it, just like water it becomes stagnant and toxic to those who hold onto it. No matter how much or how little money you have flowing through your life, when you direct that flow with soulful purpose, you feel wealthy. You feel vibrant and alive when you use your money in a way that represents you, not just in response to the market economy but also as an expression of who you are. When you let your move through things you care about, life lights up. That’s really what money is for.”
[Lynn Twist]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9pwr6tn37w

“What you appreciate, appreciates.” [Lynn Twist]
http://soulofmoney.org

“Many people choose jobs not on their gifts or talents but on how it pays.”
[Lynn Twist, her book….The Soul Of Money]

https://www.amazon.com/Soul-Money-Reclaiming-Wealth-Resources/dp/039332950X/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1498413498&sr=8-2&keywords=the+soul+of+money+lynne+twist

[terms…..hippocampus = area of the brain largely responsible for memory]
[terms…..hippocampal volume loss = loss of brain cells in the hippocampus]
[terms…..hippocampal volume loss is also called dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia, etc]

“Low socioeconomic position has been linked to an increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline…..This study examines the relationships between indicators of life-course socioeconomic position with both hippocampal volume and hippocampal volume loss in a population-based cohort of 1,328 older adults aged 65 to 80 years.”

“…..associations of socioeconomic position with baseline hippocampal volume and the annual rate of hippocampal volume atrophy….”
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“Participants with lower midlife socioeconomic position had smaller hippocampal volume and faster hippocampal atrophy than participants with higher midlife socioeconomic position.”

“Childhood and early adulthood socioeconomic positions were not related to hippocampal measures.”

“The accumulation-of-risk and the social mobility models revealed that the accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage and declining socioeconomic trajectories were related to faster hippocampal atrophy.”

“In this cohort of older adults, lower socioprofessional attainment in midlife and disadvantageous life-course socioeconomic position were associated with faster hippocampal atrophy, a cerebral change linked to cognitive disorders. Results support the hypothesized links between socioenvironmental exposures related to stress and/or cognitive enrichment and brain/cognitive reserve capacities.”

M. Elbejjani, et al
Life-Course Socioeconomic Position and Hippocampal Atrophy in a Prospective Cohort of Older Adults
Psychosomatic Medicine — Volume 79 #1 — January 2017 — page 14

[lesbian, gay, bisexual = 1 of every 15 high school students]
“…health and well being of the estimated 1.3 million lesbian, gay, bisexual high school students in the United States.”
“Stigma and discrimination experienced during adolescence can have lifelong health consequences. In addition, risky health behaviors are often established during adolescence and can be particularly prevalent among those aged 13 to 18 years experiencing stigma. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents are at higher risk for stigma and discrimination than their heterosexual counterparts.”

Stephanie Zaza, MD, MPH, Laura Kann, PhD, Lisa C. Barrios, DrPH
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual AdolescentsPopulation Estimate and Prevalence of Health Behaviors
Journal Of The American Medical Association — Volume 316 #22 — December 13, 2016 — page 2355

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2544466

Mind-body medicine……
“Major depressive disorder is a stress-related psychiatric disorder. A subgroup of major depressive disorder patients is characterized by increased inflammatory activation. We aimed to investigate whether increased inflammation particularly occurs in major depressive disorder patients with a history of stressful early or later life experiences.”
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“….in the subgroup of traumatized major depressive disorder patients, higher severity of childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher levels of both IL-6 and TNF-α in a linear fashion.”
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“Our data suggest a linear relationship between childhood sexual abuse and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in major depressive disorder patients, while more recent stressful life events were not related to these inflammatory markers.
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L.Grosse, et al
Cytokine levels in major depression are related to childhood trauma but not to recent stressors
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 73 — November 2016 — page 24

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TheETG mind-body medicine —– http://theetgtrackclub.com/documents/TheETGmindbodymed.pdf

 

rat study on probiotics -vs- major depression……
“The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder.”
“We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects.”

“Independently of diet, probiotic treatment markedly reduced depressive-like behaviour….”

“…..probiotic treatment skewed the cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells towards IFNγ, IL2 and IL4 at the expense of TNFα and IL6. In addition, probiotics lowered hippocampal transcript levels of factors involved in HPA axis regulation….”

“…..probiotics raised the level of indole-3-propionic acid, a potential neuroprotective agent.”

“Our findings clearly support probiotics as a potential treatment strategy in Major Depressive Disorder. Importantly, the efficacy was not attenuated by intake of a “Western pattern” diet associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Mechanistically, the HPA axis, immune system and microbial tryptophan metabolism could be important in this context. Importantly, our study lend inspiration to clinical trials on probiotics in depressed patients.”

A.Abildgaard, et al
Probiotic treatment reduces depressive-like behaviour in rats independently of diet
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 79 — May 2017 — page 40

“…..reduced gray matter volume in several cerebral areas and with cognitive performance decline in different cognitive domains.”
“Older adults showed less gray matter volume than younger adults within frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions. In the group of older adults, significant correlations were found between striatal gray matter volume and memory performance and between prefrontal/temporal gray matter volume and executive functioning. The only direct overlap between brain regions associated with regional atrophy and cognitive performance in older adults was found for the right caudate: older adults showed reduced caudate volume relative to younger adults.”

“Moreover, caudate volume was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy in older adults and older adults showed poorer performances than younger adults in the respective associative memory task. Taken together, the current findings indicate the relevance of the caudate for associative memory decline…..”

E.Bauer, et al
The significance of caudate volume for age-related associative memory decline
Brain Research — Volume 1622 — October 5, 2015 — page 137

“…investigate whether high performance on college preparedness tests at 18 years of age can be predicted from brain activation patterns during narrative comprehension at 5–7 years of age.”

“In this longitudinal study, functional MRI data during an auditory narrative-comprehension task were acquired from 15 children (5–7 years of age) who also provided their American College Testing (ACT) scores at the age of 18 years.”

“Higher composite ACT scores and behavioral scores for reading comprehension were positively correlated with greater activation in frontal and anterior brain regions during the narrative-comprehension task.”
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“Our results suggest that neural circuits supporting higher ACT performance are predictable from a narrative-comprehension task at the age of 5–7 years.”
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“This supports a critical role for the anterior cingulate cortex, which is a part of the cingulo-opercular cognitive-control network early in development, as a facilitator for better ACT scores. This study highlights that shared neural circuits that support overall ACT performance and neural circuits that support reading comprehension both rely on neural circuits related to narrative comprehension in childhood, suggesting that interventions involving narrative comprehension should be considered for individuals with reading and other academic difficulties.”

T.Horowitz-Kraus, et al
Predicting better performance on a college preparedness test from narrative comprehension at the age of 6 years: An fMRI study
Brain Research — Volume 1629 — December 10, 2015 — page 54

Healing And The Mind.
Great PBS documentary by Bill Moyers from the early 1990’s.
Gave a huge boost to mind-body medicine taking hold in the United States. Today there are entire departments at major medical schools and psychology PhD programs at top U.S. universities dedicated to the subject.
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[Journal Of The American Medical Association Sept 27, 2016]

“A simple type of psychotherapy known as behavioral activation is not inferior to the gold-standard cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing depression symptoms, found one of the largest trials of psychological treatment for depression to date. The authors also note that there may be a health care cost advantage to behavioral activation because it can be delivered by mental health workers with no formal training in psychological therapies.”

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2556121

Treatment of depression via body heating using infrared light sauna.
[from the Journal Of The American Medical Association]…….
“Heating the body to a state of mild hyperthermia created an antidepressant effect in people with major depressive disorder, according to a recent study. Raising participants’ core body temperature to 38.5°C significantly reduced depressive symptoms within 1 week of the intervention, and the effect was sustained for several weeks.”

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2536633

[from the Journal Of The American Medical Association]……
“The CDC’s call for nonpharmacologic approaches may serve to heighten clinician interest in nonpharmacologic strategies for managing chronic pain, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), commented Steven Stanos, DO, medical director for the Swedish Pain Services at Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, and president-elect of the American Academy of Pain Medicine.”

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2524308

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from TheETG……..Mind-body medicine is founded on the basic principle that the brain controls or influences the function of all cells in the body by direct connection to them via the nervous system, or via chemical interaction via release of hormones or substances called neuro-peptides. Hence the importance of and awareness of the existence of mind-body medicine. And the importance of utilizing mind-body medicine and integrating into the practice of medicine in the United States.

chronic stress, adrenalin receptors, & cancer cell proliferation…..
“Chronic stress accelerates metastasis – the main cause of death in cancer patients – through the activation of β-adrenoceptors (βARs).”
“….to investigate the contribution of β2-adrenoceptor signaling in tumor cells to metastasis in vivo, we used RNA interference to generate MDA-MB-231HM breast cancer cells that are deficient in β2-adrenoceptors.”
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“These findings highlight a crucial role for β2-adrenoceptor tumor cell signaling in the adverse effects of stress on metastasis, and indicate that it may be necessary to block β2-adrenoceptors on tumor cells to fully control metastatic progression.”
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A.Chang, et al
β2-Adrenoceptors on tumor cells play a critical role in stress-enhanced metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity — Volume 57 — October 2016 — page 106

 

cognitive behavioral therapy -vs- tinnitus……
“Tinnitus has a substantially negative impact on quality of life in up to 5% of the general population. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment has been shown to be effective in a few trials. The aim of our study was to investigate internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for tinnitus by using a randomized controlled trial.”

“Patients with severe tinnitus-related distress were randomly assigned to therapist-guided internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment or to a moderated online discussion forum.”
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“Within-group effects for the internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment, from pretreatment to follow-up, were substantial in regard to tinnitus-related distress….”

“Using a randomized controlled trial design, we replicated prior findings regarding positive effects of internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment on tinnitus-related distress and associated symptoms. Implementing internet-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for tinnitus into regular health care will be an important next step to increase access to treatment for patients with tinnitus.”
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C. Weise-Kleinstäuber
Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Psychosomatic Medicine — Volume 78 #4 — May 2016

 

Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT]
Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT] and Cognitive Enhancement Therapy tend to be the among the only treatments for depression, schizophrenia, and various forms of “mental illness” that address the underlying issues of brain cell loss.
Arguably “mental illness” is due to brain cell loss.
The drug approach focuses on neurotransmitters, ignoring the loss of brain cells that produce the neurotransmitters.
 
National Association Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [CBT]
http://www.nacbt.org/
 
—– find a CBT practitioner in your area
http://www.nacbt.org/find-a-therapist/
 
—– Online counseling in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
http://www.nacbt.org/cbt-online-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-from-a-certified-cognitive-behavioral-therapist/

stress hormones [glucocorticoids] & brain aging…….

"Elevated glucocorticoid levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. 
"In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years....."

"Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73...."
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"These data support the hypothesis that glucocorticoids contribute to cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain white matter structure."
.
S.R.Cox, et al
Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?Original Research 
Psychoneuroendocrinology -- Volume 62 December 2015 -- page 129

essential fatty acids for concussion & brain injury……
“Traumatic brain injury…..remains a clinical challenge. Clinical studies thus far have failed to identify an effective treatment strategy.”
“……controlling aspects of neuroprotection, neuroinflammation, and neuroregeneration is needed.”
“Omega-3 fatty acids offer the advantage of this approach.”
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“…..there is a growing body of strong preclinical evidence and clinical experience that suggests that benefits may be possible from aggressively adding substantial amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids to optimize the nutritional foundation of traumatic brain injury, concussion, and postconcussion syndrome patients.”
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“Early and optimal doses of Omega-3 fatty acids, even in a prophylactic setting, have the potential to improve outcomes from this potentially devastating problem.”
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“….Omega-3 fatty acids should be considered mainstream, conventional medicine, if conventional medicine can overcome its inherent bias against nutritional, nonpharmacologic therapies.”
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M.D.Lewis, et al
Concussions, Traumatic Brain Injury, and the Innovative Use of Omega-3s
Journal Of The American College Of Nutrition — Volume 35 #7 — July 2016 — page 469

 

TheETG applied sport sciences
Concussions.
In the words of a few doctors working in the medical research portion of the U.S. government, as a country we do a poor job of disseminating and proliferating research information to doctors, as well as to the public. Estimates are that only about 15% of information that we acquire as a species from research gets disseminated. Most doctors don’t read research, and many resist information that contradicts strongly held beliefs.
Some research based information that we as a species have known for many years…….
One of the major mechanisms of long term damage to brain caused by repeated concussions is the production of things called oxidants that cause something called oxidative damage.Thus, avoidance of long term damage to brain from repeated concussions is a matter of anti-oxidant supply. As tends to be the norm in our popular culture in areas of cancer and heart disease, etc…on the subject of concussions, brain research and brain researchers specializing in nutrition medicine are being ignored. Logical, science based approaches to resolving such issues fail to attract the attention of the popular media, and people suffer as a result. Hence a commonly used slogan..”my people perish from a lack of knowledge.
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Long term oxidant induced damage to brain cells is one of the major mechanisms of aging. Dramatically accelerated oxidant induced damage to brain cells caused by -very- high levels of stress, repeated concussions, or traumatic brain injury causes dramatically accelerated aging in brain cells. This kills them off by the million, a rate exceeds the rate of regeneration. Thus obviously the fix is to reduce the level of oxidants by supplying anti-oxidants. And at the same time, engage in activities and consume foods to elevate brain cell regeneration levels. Engaging in these for one or 2 months post-concussion will likely prove sufficient to resolve concerns of long term brain injury.
—– Consume foods and supplements to reduce oxidants……..
Consume at one time, the combination of these mixed berries…..strawberries– black berries– blue berries– raspberries– grapes
Consuming at one time, the combination of these 4 vegetables…..broccoli florets– chopped carrot– chopped romano tomato– chopped cucumber


The combination of these 4 anti-oxidant supplements….selenium [200mg]– beta carotene [25,000 IU]– vitamin E [400 IU]– vitamin C [500mg]
—– Consume other anti-oxidant supplements……..resveratrol [100mg]– n-acetyl-Cysteine [500 – 600mg]
—– Consume a gluthathione [anti-oxidant] producing probiotic……probiotic brand called “Reg’Activ”
—– Engage in activities to elevate brain cell regeneration levels…..autogenic relaxation– meditation– math problems [do in your head, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

Exercise –vs– Antidepressants………
“Depression is common in patients with cardiac disease, especially in patients with heart failure, and is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Some evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may reduce depressive symptoms…..”

“Objective — To determine whether exercise training will result in greater improvements in depressive symptoms compared with usual care…..”

“randomized controlled trial involving 2322 stable patients treated for heart failure at 82 medical clinical centers….”

“The exercise group also adhered to their program better and had relatively large decreases in depressive symptoms……”

“The more depressed a person was, the more they seemed to improve with exercise. After the one year point, depressed patient scores were about 1.5 points better in the exercise group compared to those assigned to usual care.”

“The results show that exercise ‘is in the same ballpark’ as other established treatments, particularly antidepressant medications….”

“We’re talking about three, 30-minute sessions for an accumulated 90 minutes a week. And the results are significant improvements in mental health, reduced hospitalization.”

J.A. Blumenthal, et al
Effects of Exercise Training on Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Chronic Heart FailureThe HF-ACTION Randomized Trial
Journal of the American Medical Association…..Volume 308 #5….August 1, 2012…..page 465 – 474

 

“The difference between the effect of a placebo and the effect of an anti-depressant is minimal for most people.”
“People get better when they take the drug, but its not the chemical ingredients in the drug that are making them better, its largely the placebo effect.”
Irving Kirsch [Associate Director Placebo Studies, Harvard Medical School]

60 Minutes segment….Treating Depression: Is there a placebo effect?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zihdr36WVi4

60 Minutes segment….The placebo phenomenona
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fG4AXXMPXc

Personal Power

The most powerful people in this world, are not those who have power over others, but those who have mastery over themselves. You are not your social status, your bank account, your grades, or your job title. You are, above all else…..Powerful. You are in this world;

— to discover that

— to grow into living it

— to overcome the distractions from it

— and to help others do the same.

Love is power. Self-love is the root of Personal Power. Show kindness and love to yourself and others by aggressively pursuing self-improvement as a way of life. Improving yourself provides more things about yourself for you to value and hold in high esteem…..producing a more powerful self-image and higher levels of mastery over self. Self-improvement is a process of improving one’s thoughts, choices, behaviors, and actions. You can never say that you love yourself while you are unwilling or resistant to change and improve yourself.

The purpose of life is not to see how many personal problems we can choose to deny or do nothing about, or to see how many limitations we can set or accept for ourselves. The purpose of life is to grow into living your personal power. Fill your life, not with the distractions of substances, things, or shallow relationships, but with the shameless pursuit of self-change, improvement, and growth.

The true source of abundant happiness, is not outside yourself, but within. All of your possessions in this world are within you. What you….choose…..to do with them, is what life is all about. The instruction to “Preach to all nations the message of repentance for the forgiveness of sins”, is an instruction of Self-Change through the conscious, intentional, and aggressive pursuit of self-improvement.

“The universal human journey is one of becoming conscious of our power, and how to use that power.” [Carolyn Myss….Anatomy of The Spirit]

“The personal power that comes from principle-centered living is the power of a self-aware, knowledgeable, proactive individual, unrestricted by the attitudes, behaviors, and actions of others or by many of the circumstances and environmental influences that limit other people.” [Stephen Covey….7 Habits Of Highly Effective People, page 123]

“Not that I have already obtained, or am already perfected, but I pursue.” [Apostle Paul….Phillipians 3:12]

Your 5 Outlets Of Power

— What you are

— What you do

— What you say

— What you give

— What you pray

“Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. This study explored the mechanism of cognitive behavioral therapy from the perspective of individuals’ problem-solving appraisal.”

“Findings supported the research hypothesis that the more individuals improved their problem-solving appraisal, the more their depression decreased.”

“Additionally, it was discovered that the poorer individuals’ problem-solving appraisal before the cognitive behavioral therapy, the more improvement they had on depression and problem solving appraisal after the cognitive behavioral therapy .”

“In sum, findings suggested that problem-solving appraisal might play an important part in cognitive behavioral therapy for depression reduction…..”

Szu.Y.Chen et al
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal
Research on Social Work Practice……Volume 16 #5……September 2006…..page 500 – 510

Cognitive Behavior Therapy [CBT]

Cognitive Enhancement Therapy.

Tend to be the among the only treatments for depression, schizophrenia, and various forms of “mental illness” that address the underlying issues of brain cell loss. Arguably “mental illness” is due to brain cell loss. The drug approach focuses on neurotransmitters, ignoring the loss of brain cells that produce the neurotransmitters.

.

“The evidence base for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is discussed…….identifies the need to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions and identifies cognitive behavioral therapy as having the strongest research base for effectiveness….”
G.Whitefield, et al
The evidence base for cognitive–behavioural therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment….Volume 9….2003…..page 21 – 30

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“Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating of the psychiatric disorders. Studies have shown that cognitive therapy is as efficacious as antidepressant medications at treating depression, and it seems to reduce the risk of relapse even after its discontinuation.”

R.J.DeRubeis
Cognitive therapy vs. medications for depression: Treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms
Nature Reviews Neuroscience…..Volume 9 #10….October 2008….page 788 – 796

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