Nutrition Medicine….food and/or supplements as medicine.
terms……DHA = one of the fats in fish oil…..cortisol = stress hormone
“To test the effectiveness of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on birth outcomes and infant development in a sample of African American women with Medicaid insurance……”
“The Nutrition and Pregnancy Study is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of prenatal DHA supplementation conducted between 2012 and 2014.”
“Participants were recruited from obstetric clinics at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.”

“64 pregnant, African American women were enrolled at 16–21 weeks of gestation and randomized to either 450 mg/day of DHA or a soybean placebo.”
“….complete data were obtained for 49 infants at the 3-month assessment.”

“Infants of mothers who received DHA supplementation had higher birth weight than infants of mothers receiving placebo….”

“Infants of mothers who received DHA compared with infants of mothers receiving placebo had lower levels of cortisol in response……”

“Infants of women living in urban, low-income environments who received DHA supplementation had more optimal birth outcomes and more modulated cortisol response to a stressor. DHA supplementation may be effective in attenuating the negative effects of prenatal stress on offspring development.”

K.Keenan, et al
The effect of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on infant outcomes in African American women living in low-income environments: A randomized, controlled trial
Psychoneuroendocrinology — Volume 71 — September 2016 — page 170